Autism ni iki?

Autism ni indwara y’ ubukure irangwa n’ ibibazo mu mivuganire, imibanire n’ imyitwarire. Iyi ndwara imara igihe kinini kandi ibimenytso byayo ntibimera kimwe ku bantu batandukanye.

Ibimenyetso byayo bigizwe no gukomererwa mu kugenda, ubushobozi bucye bw’ ubwenge n’ imibanire n’ abandi. Abantu bafite Autism bashobora kwiga, gukora, gutekereza, kuvugana n’ abandi kurusha abantu badafite iyi ndwara.


Autism ifatwa nk’ indwara kuko hari itandukaniro mu bimenyetso uva ku muntu umwe ujya ku wundi n’ ubukana bw'ibyo bimenyetso.


Ibimenyetso bya Autism


Mu gihe ibimenyetso byayo bitandukanye ku bantu, bitangira kugaragara mbere y’ imyaka itatu y’ ubukure. Ababyeyi bashobora kubibona bagendeye ku buryo abana babo bisanzura, uko bakira ibibakorewe n’ ubushobozi bwabo mu kuvugana n’ abandi.

Ibimenyetso bya Autism birimo imyitwarire yisubira kenshi, urugero ruto rwo gushishikara n’ ibibazo mu mibanire n’ abandi.


Nubwo abantu bafite indwara ya Autism batagaraza ibimenyetso byose, akenshi bagaragaza ibi bikurirkira:

  • Gukomererwa no guhanga umuntu amaso

  • Ibibazo bigaragara nyuma cyangwa mu biganiro.

  • Kubangamirwa n’ uko gahunda yapanze zihinduriwe umurongo.

  • Ibimenyetso byo mu maso bidahuye n’ ibiri kuvugwa.

  • Gushishikazwa no kwitegereza ibintu mu gihe kinini.

  • Kubura ibyishimo mu bikorwa bimwe na bimwe.

  • Gukomererwa no gusohora amagambo ajyanye n’ icyifuzo afite.

  • Kudakora imikino abandi bana bakora.

  • Kuterekana amaranamutima ku bantu bamwitayeho

  • Kwiyumvira cyane ku buryohe, urumuri cyangwa impumuro

  • Imyitwarire yisubiramo(urugero: Kubyina, kugenda, cyangwa gukoma amashyi)

Ni iby’ ingenzi kwibuka ko kubera autism ari indwara, abantu bashobora kugira ibimenyetso ku rugero ruto, ruringaniye cyangwa rukabije. Abantu bamwe na bamwe bashobora kugaragaza ibimenyetso byinshi ariko bigira ingaruka ku rugero ruto.


Ahandi, abantu bashobora kugira ibimenyetso bike ariko bigatuma badakora neza.

Abantu bafite autism ku rugero ruto akenshi bakora neza mu buzima busanzwe ariko hari ibyago byinshi byo kugira ibindi bibazo byo mu mutwe harimo umujagararo(stress), kugira ibitekerezo byisubira cyane, umuhangayiko n’ agahinda.


Autism iboneka mu bwana kandi ishobora kugaragara mu bantu bose hatagendewe ku mikoro yabo cyangwa aho baturuka.


Ibimenyetso byo kwitaho


Buri mwana arihariye, ariko ibimenyetso bishobora kugenderwaho n’ inzobere birimo:

  • Ku mezi atandatu, umwana ntaseka

  • Ku mwaka umwe, umwana ntavuga

  • Umwana ntiyitaba ahamagawe mu izina rye

  • Ku mwaka umwe, umwana ntakinisha ibintu

  • Ku mezi 16, umwana ntabasha kuvuga ijambo ku rindi.

  • Ku myaka ibiri, umwna ntasohora interuro y’ amagambo make

  • Ubushobozi bwo kuvuga no kwisanzura ku bandi buragabanuka.

Ibigenderwaho mu kwemeza indwara ya Autism


Akenshi ababyeyi nibo babona ibimenyetso by’ indwara ya autism ku bana babo ariko bishobora kubonwa n’ abita ku mwana, abarezi be cyangwa abaganga b’ umwana. Isuzuma rikozwe hakiri kare rirafasha. Niba ubona ari ikibazo mu myitwarire umwana wawe agaragaza, ihutire kubimenyesha umuganga. Iyo isuzuma rikozwe hakiri kare, umwana atangira guhabwa ubufasha.


Nta kizamini cyihariye umuntu yahabwa kigaragaze ko afite indwara ya autism. Abaganga bitegereza imyitwarire ndetse bakifashisha ibibazo byerekeye imikurire y’ umwana.


Isuzuma


Mu isuzuma risanzwe ku mikurire y’ umwana, abaganga barebera ku bihe by’ ingenzi mu mikurire no gusuzuma ubwoko bw’ imikurire itagenda neza nkuko bikwiye. Iyo bibonetse ko hari ibihe by’ ingenzi bitagenze neza mu mikurire yabo, isuzuma ryisumbuyeho rirakorwa hakamenyekana ikibazo umwana afite.


Mu iryo suzuma, itsinda ry’ abagana riba rigizwe n’ umuganga wita ku bana, inzobere mu kuvura idwara zo mu mutwe mu bana, impuguke mu ndwara zo kuvuga ndetse abo bose barebera hamwe ibintu bitandukanye harimo imyitwarire iranga umwana bitewe n’ igihe agezemo, ubushobozi bwo gutekereza n’ ubushobozi bwo kuvuga.

  • Ikizamini kiriho ibibazo kuri autism

  • Gukurikirana amateka y’ imikurire y’ umwana

  • Ibizamini byo kumva

  • Ikizamini cyo gutekereza(IQ test)

Autism ishobora gusuzumwa ku bana bafite munsi y imyaka ibiri y’ ubukure kuko ibimenyetso byayo bigaragara mu myaka itatu ya mbere y’ ubuzim bw’ umwana.


Kwemeza Autism mu bantu bakuru


Nubwo autism ari indwara isuzumwa mu bwana, ishobora kuboneka mu ngimbi, abangavu n’ abantu bakuru. Kwemeza iyo ndwara rimwe na rimwe biragorana kuko ibimenyetso byayo bishobora kwitiranywa n’ izindi ndwara zo mu mutwe harimo umuhangayiko, obsessive compulsive disorder (indwara irangwa n’ ibitekerezo n’ imyitwarire byisubira ) na attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(irangwa no kutaguma hamwe no gukubagana)


Mu gihe abashakashatsi benshi bakiri kwiga ku buryo bwakoreshwa mu kuvura abantu bakuru bafite indwara ya autism, isuzuma rishobora gufasha mu kumenya ibibazo byo mu gihe cyashize cyangwa ubu. Rishobora gutuma kandi umuntu yiga uko yamenya aho imbaraga ze nyinshi ziri kandi agahabwa ubufasha mu bibazo bibangamiye buzima bwe.


Ibaruramibare


Hagendewe ku cyegeranyo cy’ ikigo cyo kurwanya indwara(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), umwana umwe w’ imyaka umunani muri 54, afite indwara ya autism. Icyo kigo kandi cyerekana ko iyi ndwara igaragara mu bantu bose, itagendeye ku mikoro cyangwa aho baturuka.


Ariko kandi byagaragaye ko indwara ya autism igaragara cyane mu bahungu kurusha abakobwa. Imibare kandi yerekana ko autism ubu igaragara cyane kurushaho mu bihe byashize. Bigaragara kandi ko yiyongera, ku kigero cya 10 kugeza kuri 17% mu myaka mike ishize.


Ibitera autism


Nubwo impamvu nyirizina itera autism itari yamenyekana, ubushakashatsi bwerekana ko ari indwara ishobora guhererekanywa mu bisekuru.

Ubusakashatsi bwerekana ko uko guhererekanywa, bishobora gutuma abana bavukana umwe afite iyo ndwara bishyira mu byago by’ uko undi nawe yayirwara.


Ariko kandi, ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko kuri 20%, impamvu zitera autism ari ihererekanywa mu bisekuru. Hakenewe ubundi bushakashatsi kugira ngo byumvikane neza uburyo ihinduka ry’ uturemangino rishobora kugira uruharemu gutera indwara ya autism.


Nubwo uturemangingo bitekerezwa ko tugira uruhare, ubushakashatsi butandukanye bwerekanye ko iyo umwana avutse atagejeje igihe n’ imyaka mike y’ ubukure ku mubyeyi w’ umugabo nabyo bifatwa nk’ impamvu ziganisha ku ndwara ya autism mu bana.

Imiti n’ ibiyobyabwenge umubyeyi yafata atwite, nabyo bitera ibyago bikomeye byo kuba umwana yavuka akagira indwara ya autism. Ariko ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko inkingo umubyeyi ahabwa zidatera indwara ya autism ku mwana azabyara.


Ubwoko bwa Autism


Iyo byemejwe ko umuntu afite autism, abanganga berekana n’ urwego ibimenyetso byayo biriho. Ari inzego eshatu z’ uburwayi bwa autism.

  • Urwego rwa mbere: Ibimenyetso biboneka ku rwego ruto

  • Urwego rwa kabiri: Ibimenyetso biboneka ku rwego rugereranyije

  • Urwego rwa gatatu: Ibimenyetso biboneka ku rwego rukabije

Izi nzego zikoreshwa mu kwerekana uko imyitwarire n’ uburyo bwo kwisanzura bigirwaho ingaruka n’ ubwo burwayi.


Urwego rwa mbere

Urwego rwa mbere rufatwa nka autism ifite ibimenyetso biri ku rwego ruto. Abantu bafite ubu bwoko bagira ibibazo by’ imibanire n’ imyitwarire ariko bakenera ubufasha ku rugero ruto kugirango babashe gukora neza mu buzima bwa buri munsi.


Urwego rwa kabiri:

Abantu bafite autism iri ku rwego rwa kabiri bakenera ubufasha bwisumbuye. Bagorwa ku rwego ruringaniye, bashobora kugira ibibazo byo kuganira n’ abandi kandi bakenera ubufasha mu guhagarika imyitwarire itera ibibazo.


Urwego rwa gatatu

Abantu bafite autism iri ku rwego rwa gatatu bagira ibimenyetso bibangamira ubushobozi bwabo bwo kubaho no gukora bigenga. Abantu bafite autism iri kuri uru rwego akenshi ntibavuga, bagorwa n’ impinduka, bagira imiyitwarire n’ ibikorwa basubiramo kenshi kandi babangamirwa n’ ikintu icyo ari cyo cyose gituma umubiri ugira ibyiyumviro(urumuri, urusaku, n’ ibindi)


Amako yabonekaga mbere


Igitabo cy’ indwara zo mu mutwe “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)cyasohowe mu mwaka wa 2013 cyerekanye impinduka ku buryo autism yashyirwaga mu byiciro. Kugeza aho icyo gitabo cyashyiriwe ahabona, inzobere zibandaga ku moko menshi ya autism. Harimo:

  • Asperger's syndrome: yarangwaga n’ uko umuntu yagiraga ubushobozi bwo mu mutwe busanzwe ariko akagorwa mu mibanire n’ abandi.

  • Pervasive developmental disorder: yabaga ifite ibimenyetso biri ku rwego rugereranyije

  • Indwara ya autism: yo yarangwaga n’ ibimenyetso biri ku rwego rukabije kurusha Asperger’s na Pervasive developmental disorder.

Uyu munsi zabumbiwe hamwe mu kwerekana indwara imwe ya autism. Mu gihe ayo moko yavuzwe haruguru atakibarwa nk’ indwara, abantu bamwe baracyabukoresha mu kwerekana uburyo ibimenyetso birutanwa mu rugero. Urugero, abantu akensh bafata ko Asperger's syndrome ifasha nk’ uburyo bwo kumenya uko uyifite yisanzura ku bandi.


Uko autism ivurwa


Nubwo autism ari indwara imara igihe kinini cy’ ubuzima bw’ umuntu, hari ubuvuzi butangwa bushobora kugabanya urwego rw’ ibimenyetso no kongera ubushobozi bwo gukora mu nguni zitandukanye z’ubuzima.


Nkuko ikigo c’ ubuzima bwo mu mutwe kibivuga, ubuvuzi bugomba gutangira igihe hemejwe ko umuntu afite indwara ya autism.


Nta buryo bumwe buhari bwo kuyivura. Abantu bafite autism bafite ibimenyetso bitandukanye kuburyo bivuze ko ibyo buri muntu akeneye bitandukanye. Bisobanuye ko n’ ubuvuzi bahabwa butandukanye. Hashobora gukoreswa imiti n’ uburyo bw’ ibiganiro mu kuvura autism.


Imiti

Nubwo nta muti wihariye wo kuvura autism wari waboneka, umuganga ashobora kwandika imiti itandukanye yo guhangana n’ ibimenyetso. Imiti yifashishwa mu kuvura indwara zo mu mutwe, umuhangayiko, n’ iyo kuvura igicuri ishobora kugabanya ibimenyetso bikurikira:

  • Amahane

  • Ubwoba

  • Ibibazo byo kurangara

  • Agahinda

  • Gukora ubutaruhuka no kutaguma hamwe

  • Uburyo budakwiye bwo gusohora amagambo

  • Umunabi

  • Kwikura mu bandi

Ubuvuzi bw’ imyitwarire n’ ubufasha mu mikurire

Kuvura autism byibanda ku myitwarire, imitekerereze no guhugura umwana uburyo bwo gukora imirimo imwe n' imwe. Uburyo bukoreshwa akenshi ni ugusesengura imyitwarire, bukaba uburyo bwo kuvura hakoreshejwe ibintu bishyigikira imyitwarire n’ ubumenyi bikwiye bifasha umwana mu mirimo ya buri munsi.


Ubundi buvuzi buhabwa abafite ikibazo cya autism burimo:

  • Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire

  • Ubuvuzi bwibanda ku mwihariko w’ umwana ufite autism.

  • Ubufasha bwifashisha imikoro mito mito.

  • Ubuvuzi bukoresha imikino.

  • Ubufasha mu mibanire n’ abandi

  • Ubuvuzi bwibanda ku kuvuga n’ ururimi.

Ubwo buvuzi bwo buba bugamije gufasha umuntu ufite indwara ya autism muri ibi bikurikira:

  • Guteza imbere ubushobozi bwo gutekereza

  • Kongera ubushobozi umwana afite

  • Guteza imbere imivugire n’ ubusabane n’ abandi

  • Guteza imbere ubumenyi bufasha umwana aho aba

  • Kwigisha umwana kwirwanaho no kwigenga

Ubundi bufasha butangwa harimo kwigisha umwana gukoresha ibikoresho by’ ikoranabuhanga, kuvuga no gukora imirimo y’ uburyo butandukanye.


Guhangana n’ ibimenyetso


Nyuma yo guhabwa ubuvuzi butangwa n’ inzobere, hari ubundi buryo umwana afashwa kwikorera bikanamufasha guhangana n’ ibimenyetso bya autism. Ibyagira umumaro harimo:


Kwiyakira

Aho kwibanda ku itandukaniro riri hagati ye n’ abandi, umuntu agirwa n’ ubushobozi afite ku giti cye. Kwitoza kwakira no kwikunda ntacyo ugendeyeho aho kwibanda ku bintu bigutandukanya n’ abandi.


Shaka ahantu cyangwa ibintu bigufasha kuruhuka

Wirinde ibintu byose bituma ugira umujagararo(stress) harimo urusaku rukabije n’ urumuri rwinshi.


Gira gahunda y’ imirimo ukora

Abantu bafite ikibazo cya autism bakora neza iyo ari imbonerahamwe y’ ibikorwa byabo. Gira amasaha adahinduka yo gukora ibikorwa harimo gufata amafunguro, amasomo, gahunda za muganga, no kuryama.


Jya mu itsinda ryo gufashanya

Baza amatsinda yo gufashanya arangwa aho utuye cyangwa uhure n’ abandi ku mirono y’ ikoranabuhanga. Ushobora gusangiza abandi uko ubayeho, ukabona ubufasha, ukiga ibijyanye n’ ubuvuzi butwangwa hamwe no kubona ibintu na gahunda bifasha abafite indwara ya autism.


Menya ibituma ugira imyitwarire idakwiye

Niba hari ibintu bigukururira kwerekana imyitwarire idakwiye, ushobora kubona uburyo wakoresha ubyirinda.


Wite ku makuru atangwa n’ibice by’ umubiri

Kubera ko abafite autism bagorwa no kuvuga, bashobora kuvura uburyo bavuga ibibagoye mu magambo. Reba neza ibimenyetso byo mu isura, uburyo ibice by’ umubiri bigenda n’ ibindi byose bigize icyo bisobanuye bidaciye mu magambo.


Koresha uburyo bwo guteza imbere imico myiza

Intego ya mbere ni uguhemba umwana iyo akoze neza. Iyo ubonye hari ubumenyi bushya ari gukoresha cyangwa akoze neza, mutere imbaraa umushimagize kubw’ icyo gikorwa. Mu buryo bw’ amagambo ni byiza ariko ushobora no gukoresha ibindi bihembo harimo amashusho yo kwomeka ku makayi cyangwa ibindi bikorwa bituma umwana akurana imyitwarire myiza yagaragaje.


 

Autism ni indwara ikomeye ishobora gutuma abantu badakora neza kandi ikagira ingaruka mu nguni nyinshi z’ ubuzima. Iyo umwana ahawe ubufasha hakiri kare biramufasha kandi hari uburyo bwinshi ubuvuzi butangwamo. Kubona ubuvuzi bukwiye byagufasha wowe ubwawe cyanwa abawe kubaho ubuzima bw’ ubwigenge kandi bwiza.


 


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