Indwara y’ Agahinda Gakabije ni iki? Sobanukirwa Ibimenyetso n’ uburyo ivurwa

Agahinda gakabije ni indwara yo mu mutwe ishobora kugira ingaruka ku buryo wiyumva n’ ubushobozi bwo gukora imirimo yawe umunsi ku munsi.


Mu gihe buri muntu wese ashobora kumva ababaye cyangwa nta mbaraga afite, kwiyumva utyo hagashira ibyumweru cyangwa amezi bishobora gusobanura ko ufite agahinda.


Niba ucyeka ko waba ufite agahinda, ntago uri wenyine. Ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko 11.9% by’ abatuye u Rwanda bafite indwara y’ agahinda gakabije.


Aha, uraza kugera ku musozo w’ iyi nkuru wamenye ibimenyetso, impamvu zitera n’ uburyo byemezwa ko umuntu afite indwara y’agahinda gakabije. Uramenya kandi uburyo bukoreshwa mu kuvura agahinda gakabije n’ uburyo wakoresha uhangana n’ iyi ndwara.


Ibimenyetso by’ indwara y’ agahinda gakabije


Hari ibimenyetso by’ indwara y’ agahinda gakabije ushobora kugira. Birimo:

  • Kumva ubabaye cyangwa nta mbaraga ufite

  • Kumva mu mutwe “ubereye aho”

  • Kumva uhangayitse

  • Kumva hari ibyo wishinja cyangwa ntacyo wifashije

  • Kumva ntacyo umaze, nta cyizere cy’ ejo hazaza, cyangwa utifitiye icyizere

  • Kumva udatuje, ujagaraye cyangwa ufite umunabi

  • Kudashishikazwa n’ ibintu byagushimishaga mbere

  • Kwihunza ibikorwa usanzwe ukora

  • Kumva ufite imbaraga nke cyangwa unaniwe

  • Kugenda cyangwa kuvuga buhoro

  • Kugorwa no guhanga amaso ikintu kimwe, kwibuka cyangwa gufata imyanzuro

  • Kugira ibibazo mu misinzirire: kubura ibitotsi, gukanguka hakiri kare cyangwa gusinzira cyane.

  • Kugira ibibazo by’ imirire n’ ibiro by’ umubiri

  • Kurwara umutwe udakira, kuribwa imitsi, ibibazo mu rwungano ngogozi cyangwa ubundi buribwe budafite impamvu ibutera kandi ntiworoherwe utavuwe.

  • Kuvuga cyane ku rupfu, kugira ibitekerezo byo kwiyahura, cyangwa kugerageza kwigiririra nabi.

Buri wese agira ibimenyetso by’ indwara y’ agahinda gakabije mu buryo butandukanye n’ ubw’ abandi. Mu gihe abantu bamwe bashobora kugira ibimenyetso bike, abandi bashobora kugira byinshi. Umubare wabyo, ubukana n’ igihe bimara nabyo bishobora gutandukana mu bantu batandukanye.


Ubwoko bw’ indwara z’ agahinda


Agahinda gashobora kugaragara mu buryo butandukanye, cyangwa kakabaho bitewe n’ impamvu runaka. Niyo mpamvu gashobora gushyirwa mu cyiciro, harimo n’ indwara y’ agahinda gakabije


Ubwoko bw’ indwara z’ agahinda harimo:

  • Indwara y’ agahinda gakabije: ni indwara y’ agahinda irangwa n’ uko umuntu agira ibimenyetso birengeje ibyumweru bibiri. Ibimenyetso kandi bigira ingaruka ku bushobozi bwo kurya, gusinzira, gukora n’ imibereho ya buri munsi.

  • Indwara y’ agahinda k’ igihe kirekire: ni indwara y’agahinda karangwa n’ ibimenyetso birenza igihe cy’ imyaka ibiri.

  • Perinatal depression: ni indwara y’ agahinda abagore bagira mu gihe cyo kubyara na nyuma yaho.

  • Indwara y’ agahinda mugihe cy’ imihango: iyi ni y’ abagore cyangwa abakobwa bari mu gihe cy’ imihango, ikaba itera umuntu uyifite kugira imimerere itandukanye(agahinda no kwishima birenze)

  • Indwara y’ agahinda ifite ibimenyetso by’ izindi ndwara zo mu mutwe: umuntu ashobora kugira indwara y’ agahinda kivanzemo ibimenyetso bw’ izindi ndwara zo mu mutwe zituma umuntu abaho bitandukanye n’ ukuri.

  • Indwara y’ agahinda igaragara mu bihe runaka: ni indwara y’ agahinda igaragara mu bihe by’ ubukonje, iyo nta zuba rihari.

  • Indwara ya Bipolar: nubwo indwara ya bipolar itari mu ndwara z’ agahinda, ishobora gutuma umuntu anyura mu bihe by’ agahinda nyuma yo kugira umunezero udasanzwe.

Ibitera indwara y’ agahinda gakabije


Agahinda gaterwa no kubura uburinganire mu misemburo yo mu bwonko. Impamvu zirimo ihererekanywa mu muryango, iz’ ubuzima bwo mu mutwe n’ ibintu tunyuramo bishobora kongera ibyago byo kugira agahinda, ariko ni byiza kwibuka ko umuntu wese ashobora kugira agahinda nk’ indwara.


Bimwe mu bitera agahinda harimo:

  • Imisemburo yo mu bwonko: ikinyuranyo mu rugero rw’ imisemburo yo mu bwonko ishobora gutuma umuntu agira agahinda.

  • Uruhererekane rwo mu muryango: kugira umuvandimwe ufite indwara y’ agahinda gakabije byongera ibyago ko nawe wayirwara.

  • Amateka y’ uburwayi: ushobora kugira ibyago byo kurwara indwara y’ agahinda gakabije niba warigeze kuyirwaraho.

  • Igitsina: hari ibyago byikubye kabiri ko abagore bagira indwara y’ agahinda kurusha abagabo.

  • Ibibazo by’ ubuzima: guhungabana, gupfusha uwo wakundaga, ibibazo bikomeye mu buzima n’ ibindi biremerera umuntu bishobora gutera agahinda gakabije.

  • Umujagararo(stress): Umujagararo ushobora guhungabanya umubiri n’ ubuzima bwo mu mutwe, bikongera ibyago byo kurwara indwara y’ agahinda gakabije.

  • Guhezwa: kubura ubufasha bw’ abandi n’ ubwigunge bishobora kongera ibyago byo kugira agahinda gakabije.

  • Indwara: agahinda gashobora gutezwa cyangwa kakagendana n’ indwara zikomeye nka kanseri, indwara z’ umutima, diyabete n’ indwara ya Parkinson. Kugira indwara y’ agahinda bishobora gutuma ibibazo by' izo ndwara biba bibi kurushaho.

  • Imiti: hari imiti ishobora kuvamo agahinda nk’ ingaruka zayo

  • Ibiyobyabwenge: inzoga n’ ibindi biyobyange bishobora guteza cyangwa bikongera agahinda.

  • Imiterere bwite y’ umuntu: abantu bagorwa no guhangana n’ ibibazo by’ ubuzima bashobora kugira agahinda ku buryo bworoshye kurusha abandi.

Kwemeza indwara y’ agahinda gakabije


Niba wowe cyangwa uwo ukunda yiyumva afite agahinda cyangwa nta mbaraga, shaka ubufasha uko byagenda kose. Ushobora kugana inzobere mu buzima bwo mu mutwe cyangwa ugahamagara umuganga akagusuzuma, byaba ngombwa akakurangira aho wakura ubufasha.


Umuganga usanzwe ukwitaho azakubaza ibibazo bikurikiranye, bituma amenya ibimenyetso, ibitekerezo, ibyiyumviro cyangwa amateka y’ uburwayi. Bashobora gukenera gufata ibizamini by’ ubuzima bw’ umubiri cyangwa mu mutwe, kugira ngo amenye neza ibindi bibazo bishobora gutera ibimenyetso ugaragaza.


Umuganga ukwitaho azemeza niba ibimenyetso byawe byujuje cyangwa bitujuje ibigenderwaho mu kwemeza indwara y’ agahinda gakabije, birimo:

  • Kuba ufite agahinda no kudashishikarira ibikorwa, bikaba bimaze igihe kirekire.

  • Kugira ibimenyetso birenze bitanu by’ agahinda gakabije.

  • Kuba ugaragaza ibimenyetso buri munsi, kandi umunsi wose

  • Kugira ibimenyetso birengeje igihe cy’ ibyumweru bibiri.

  • Kuba utakibasha gukora nk’ uko wakoraga mbere yo kugaragaza ibimenyetso.

Kuvura indwara y’ agahinda gakabije


Nubwo agahinda ari indwara ikomeye, ishobora kuvurwa. Hagati ya 80% na 90% by’ abantu bafite agahinda gakabije bafashwa n’ ubuvuzi, kandi abarwayi bose baroroherwa ku bimenyetso bagaragaza.


Ni byiza kwihutira gusaba ubuvuzi bw’ indwara y’ agahinda gakabije, kuko uko ivuwe kare, niko ubufasha umuntu ahabwa bumugirira akamaro kurushaho. Kwirengagiza ibimenyetso by’ agahinda kandi ntikavurwe bishobora kuganisha ku kwigirira nabi cyangwa kwiyahura.


Ubuvuzi bw’ indwara y’ agahinda bushobora mu buryo butatu: imiti, ibiganiro, cyangwa gutera ubwonko imbaraga (brain stimulation). Uburyo bwo kuvura umuntu ufite agahinda bukoreshwa hagendewe ku bukare bw’ ibimenyetso ndetse n’ icyo nyirubwite akeneye.


Uburyo bw’ imiti


Imiti ivura agahinda (antidepressants) nibwo bwoko bufasha abafite ibimenyetso. Iyo miti ifasha kuringaniza imisemburo yo mu bwonko. Iyi miti itangwa mu rwego rwo kuvura agahinda kari ku rwego ruringaniye cyangwa rurenze.


Hari ubwoko bwinshi bw’ iyi miti, ushobora kugerageza ubwoko butandukanye mbere yo kubona umwe wihariye uzakoresha mu bihe bikurirkira.


Ariko kandi, ni byiza kumenya ko imiti ivura agahinda bishobora gutwara ibyumweru cyangwa amezi kugira ngo bizamure ibyishimo, niyo mpamvu ukeneye guha iyi miti igihe cyo gukora uko bikwiye.


Uburyo bw’ ibiganiro


Uburyo bwo kuvura indwara zo mu mutwe hifashishijwe ibiganiro bishobora gufasha mu kuvura abafite agahinda. Ubu ni bumwe mu bwoko bw’ ubuvuzi bwifashisha ibiganiro bwifashishwa mu kuvura agahinda:

  • Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire: ubu buvuzi bushobora kugufasha kumenya ibitekerezo bidakwiye bitera agahinda ufite. Bushobora kugufasha kugira ibitekerezo n’ imyitwarire bikwiye.

  • Psychodynamic therapy: ibi ubuvuzi bugufasha kumenya no kumva uko ibyabaye mu buzima mu gihe cyatambutse, nk’ ibikorwa bihungabanya bishobora kuba byaragize uruhare mu kuba wagira agahinda.

  • Ubuvuzi buhabwa amatsinda: ni ubwoko bw’ ubuvuzi buhabwa amatsinda, aho kuba umuntu ku giti cye. Bushobora gufasha umuntu kuganira no gusabana n’ abantu bafite ikibazo kimwe, kandi bigakorwa mu buryo bufasha abari muri iryo tsinda.

  • Ubuvuzi buhabwa abashakanye cyangwa umuryango: ubuvuzi buhabwa imiryango bushobora gufasha mu gukemura ibibazo biri mu muryango, mu gihe ubuhabwa abashakanye bubafasha kurebera hamwe no gushakira umuti w’ ikibazo bari kumwe.

Ugomba kwitega kumererwa neza iyo wagiranye ibiganiro n’ inzobere mu buzima bwo mu mutwe, byibuze kuva 10 kugeza kuri 15. Ubu burebure bw’ ubuvuzi bushobora gutandukana bitewe n’ ubukare cyangwa urwego agahinda kariho.


Gutera ubwonko imbaraga


Ubu buryo bushobora gufasha abantu bafite agahinda kari ku rwego rukabije ku buryo imiti cyangwa ibiganiro bitabafasha. Uburyo bukoreshwa muri ubu buvuzi harimo:

  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): ni ubuvuzi bukorwa hifashishijwe amashanyarazi. Byose nta buribwe bitera kandi ntiwakumva ayo mashanyarazi, ariko biba ngombwa ko uhabwa imiti y’ imitsi kandi ugaterwa ikinya mbere yo kubikorerwa.

  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): rTMS ni uburyo bwo kuvura agahinda bukora iyo icyuma cya rukuruzi gishyizwe hafi y’ agahanga k’ umurwayi. Icyo cyuma gitera imbaraga imitsi yo mu bwonko kandi bugakorerwa abarwayi bivuza bataha badatewe ikinya.

  • Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS): ni uburyo bukoreshwa havurwa agahinda aho akuma kohereza imbaraga z’ amashanyarazi mu bwonko gashyirwa mu mutsi uri mu gikanu. Aka kuma gashyirwa mu gikanu cy’ umurwayi abanje kubagwa.

Guhangana n’ indwara y’ agahinda gakabije.


Hari uburyo bwagufasha guhangana n’ indwara y’ agahinda gakabije.

  • Sangiza inshuti zawe cyangwa umuryango uko wiyumva

  • Umva neza ko gukira ari urugendo, ni byiza ko ugira intego uzagenderaho.

  • Hindura gahunda wari ufite kugeza igihe umerewe neza.

  • Gerageza gukora kandi ukore imyitozo ngororamubiri.

  • Gira gahunda y’ ibikorwa byawe ihoraho.

  • Gerageza usinzire bihagije.

  • Fata indyo yuzuye

  • Irinde inzoga, itabi n’ ibindi biyobyabwenge. Wirinde kandi imiti muganga atakwandikiye.

Ijambo rya Vuga Ukire Initiative


Indwara y’ agahinda gakabije ni indwara ikomeye iterwa no kubura uburinganire mu misemburo y’ ubwonko. Si inenge cyangwa imbaraga nke, kandi ishobora kuba kuri buri wese.


Niba wowe cyangwa undi muntu uzi afite agahinda, ni byiza ko ushaka inzobere mu buzima bwo mu mutwe. Ubuvuzi bushobora kugabanya ibimenyetso, bukagufasha guhangana n’ agahinda n’ imikorere ya buri munsi.


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