UBUVUZI BUHABWA INGIMBI N’ABANGAVU KU NDWARA ZO MU MUTWE

Muri iyi nyandiko igaragaza ubusobanuro bwa buri bwoko b’ubuvuzi ku ndwara zo mu mutwe bugamije gufasha ingimbi n’abangavu. Harimo kandi uko buri bwoko bukora, umumaro wabwo, ndetse n’ibyo wakwitega muri ubwo buvuzi.



Imyaka y’ubugimbi n’ubwangavu ni igihe cy’ingirakamaro mu mikurire y’abantu. Abahanga bavuga ko ingorane ku buzima bwo mu mutwe atari nyinshi muri iyi myaka, ariko mu bantu umwe kuri batatu mu biga mu mashuri yisumbuye bagaragaraho ibimenyetso by’agahinda gakabije harimo umubabaro no gutakaza icyizere cy’ubuzima. Nkuko ubuvuzi ku ndwara zo mu mutwe bugirira abantu bakuru akamaro, no ku ngimbi n’abangavu naho ni uko.


Hari ubwoko bwinshi b’ubuvuzi ku ndwara zo mu mutwe bugirira umumaro ingimbi n’abangavu. Ni byiza ko umenya amahitamo y’ubuvuzi bukwiye kandi bwafasha umwana wawe n’uko buri bwose bukora.



1. Cognitive-behavioral Therapy (CBT)


Cognitive-behavioral Therapy izwi nka CBT, ni ubwoko bw’ubuvuzi bukoresha inzira y’ibiganiro, bukibanda ku kwerekana ihuriro riri hagati y’ibitekerezo, imyitwarire n’amarangamutima. Inzobere muri ubu buvuzi bafasha abantu kubona no guhindura ibituma ubuzima bwabo butagenda neza.


Amahame Shingiro ya CBT

CBT yibanda ku kwerekana ihuriro ry’ ibitekerezo, imyitwarire n’amarangamutima. Ingimbi cyangwa umwangavu utekereza ko ari ikigwari, bishobora kumutera isoni ntasabane n’abandi. CBT ikoreshwa mu gufasha uwo muntu kubona ibyo bitekerezo biherekezwa n’ubwoba bikaba byasimbuzwa n’ibindi bizima kandi bimufasha kubaho neza.


Uko CBT Ikora

Akenshi ingimbi n’abangavu bagira imyumvire itaganisha ku buzima bwiza. CBT ifasha kurwanya no guhindura ibyo bidafite aho bimugeza. Inzobere mu buvuzi bwa CBT yunganira abo bantu kugira ubushobozi bwo kubona no guhindura ibyo bitekerezo biganisha ku bibazo by’ubuzima bwo mu mutwe.


Umumaro wo gukoresha CBT

CBT ifasha ingimbi n’abangavu kubonera ubusobanuro aho bari mu buryo bunyuranye n’ibyo batekerezaga. Ugereranije n’ubundi buryo bw’imivurire, CBT imara igihe gito. Ikindi ni uko ubu buryo bwibanda kubibazo bihari aka kanya. Abatanga ubwo buvuzi ntibinjira mu byabaye mu bwana cyangwa ngo bashakire ubusobanuro icyihishe inyuma y’imyitwarire bagaragaza mu gihe bagezemo. Ahubwo, Ibiganiro byibanda ku gufasha gushakira ibisubizo by’ibibazo iyo ngimbi cyangwa umwangavu ahura nabyo uyu munsi.


Umumaro wa CBT harimo ko:

  • Ifasha guhindura imitekerereze.

  • Ifasha kubona ibisubizo biboneye ku mujagararo umuntu yagira.

  • Guteza imbere imibanire n’abandi

  • Kwongera agaciro umuntu yiha no kwikunda

  • Kurwanya imitekerereze iganisha ku bubata cyangwa ku kwigirira nabi

  • Kugabanya ubwoba.

Icyo wakwitega kuri CBT

Muri CBT, ingimbi cyangwa umwangavu afashwa kumenya ibitekerezo bituma agira imyitwarire idakwiye, rimwe na rimwe bishobora kuba bimeze nk’inzira igoye. Umuganga uvura yifashishije CBT afatanya nabo kubona izindi nzira zo gutekereza no kwiga ibindi byamufasha kwirwanaho mu buryo bukwiye.


Ingimbi n’ abangavu bahabwa “Imikoro” bakora iyo batari kumwe na muganga, iyo mikoro ikibanda kubyagarutsweho mu kiganiro bagiranye n’inzobere zikoresha ubwo buryo bw’imivurire bwa CBT. CBT isa naho ifite umurongo ngenderwaho, kandi ibi bifasha ingimbi n’abangavu bashaka kumva neza intego zabo n’ibyo bwakwitega nyuma y’ubuvuzi.

 

Inshamake kuri CBT

CBT akenshi yibanda ku mikoro ikorwa n’ingimbi cyangwa umwangavu uri guhabwa ubufasha. Biba byiza kurushaho iyo ababyeyi b’ufashwa nabo bagize uruhare muri iyo mikoro ikorwa n’umwana wabo. Niba uri umubyeyi, baza neza muganga w’ umwana wawe uburyo watanga umusanzu mu rugendo rw’ubuvuzi buhabwa umwana wawe.

 

2. Ubuvuzi buhabwa imiryango (Family Therapy)

Ubuvuzi buhabwa imiryango (Family Therapy) ni uburyo bukoreshwa n’inzobere mu gufasha ingimbi n’abangavu, bukibanda ku mibanire n’imibereho y’umuryango bigira ingaruka ku buzima bwo mu mutwe. Ku ingimbi n’abangavu bahanganye n’ ibibazo bishingiye ku hantu cyangwa amakimbirane yo mu miryango, ubu buryo bw’imivurire bufasha umwana n’umuryango wose muri rusange.


Amahame shingiro ya Family Therapy

Family therapy ifasha kumenya amarangamutima no kumva neza uruhare rwa buri wese mu muryango. Uko abantu bakora urugendo rwo gukira babifashijwemo n’inzobere hamwe n’imiryango, bose bafashirizwa hamwe kumenya uburyo bukwiye bwo kuvugana hagati yabo. Family therapy kandi ifasha ababyeyi cyangwa abareberera umwana kwiga uburyo bufasha amarangamutima y’ ingimbi cyangwa umwangavu cyane cyane kumutega amatwi utamucira urubanza.


Uko Family Therapy ikora

Family therapy ikoresha uburyo butandukanye mu gufasha ingimbi n’abangavu hamwe n’ imiryango yabo. Ubwo buryo harimo ubwibanda ku myitwarire; urugero: inshingano za buri wese no kumenya uburyo bukwiye bavuganamo; imitunganirize y’ibikorwa biteza imbere umuryango no kumenya ibindi bifasha umuryango gukomera.


Umumaro wa Family Therapy

Ubu buryo bw’imivurire bushobora gufasha ingimbi, abangavu n’imiryango yabo mu buryo butandukanye. Imwe mu mimaro ya Family therapy irimo:

  • Guteza imbere uburyo abagize umuryango baganira.

  • Kugabanya amakimbirane.

  • Guteza imbere imibereho y’ urugo.

  • Gutega amatwi no kwishyira mu mwanya w’undi.

  • Kubaka ubufatanye hagati y’abagize umuryango.

Family therapy ifasha mu gushakira ibisubizo ibibazo by’imyitwarire no gushaka uburyo bubeneye bwo guhangana n’impinduka ziba mu miryango harimo: kwimuka, gutandukana kw’ababyeyi cyangwa urupfu rw’uwo bakundaga.


Ibyo wakwitega muri Family Therapy

Ubuvuzi bukorewe imiryango bushobora gukorwa mu gihe gito cyangwa kirekire bitewe n’uko ikibazo cy’ingimbi, umwangavu cyangwa umuryango gihagaze. Ibiganiro bimwe bishobora kwibanda ku mwana ariko igihe kinini bigasaba uruhare rw’abagize umuryango wose. Mu kiganiro gikorwa hagati y’ukora ubuvuzi n’ababuhabwa, hibandwa cyane ku bibazo byagaragaye no kureba ku bindi bintu bituma icyo kibazo gikomeza gufata indi intera cyane cyane harimo agakungu k’urungano, umujagararo no kubura umutuzo, ihungabana cyangwa ibindi bibazo by’ubuzima bwo mu mutwe.

 

Inshamake kuri Family Therapy

Family Therapy ishobora kugira umumaro ku ngimbi n’abangavu bagaragaza ibibazo by’imyitwarire cyangwa ibibazo byo mu miryango bigira ingaruka mu mibereho myiza yabo. Family therapy ishobora gukorwa mu buryo bw’ ikiganiro n’umuntu umwe ariko ubusanzwe uruhare rw’abagize umuryango wose rurakenewe.

 

3. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)


Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Izwi nka ACT, ni uburyo bukoreswa n’Abaganga bushobora gufasha ingimbi n’abangavu kumenya, gusobanukirwa no kwakira amarangamutima yabo. Ingimbi n’abangavu akenshi bagira amarangamutima bigoye kuyaha ubusobanuro, bityo rero gusobanukirwa uko biyumva bishobora kubafasha kubona uburyo batangiriraho urugendo rwo kubohoka.


Amahame shingiro ya ACT

Icy’ibanze ACT yibandaho ni ukwiga kwakira amarangamutima bishobora kwongera imyumvire. Ibi ni ubushobozi buhambaye kuko bugira umumaro mu kumenya uko ugenza amarangamutima mu gihe gito no gushyira ku ruhande ibyiyumviro kugeza igihe umuntu yumva abohokeye kubivuga mu buryo bubeneye.


Uko ACT ikora

Imivurire ya ACT bukoresha uburyo butandatu mu gufasha ingimbi n’abangavu gusobanukirwa amarangamutima yabo:

  • Kwakira: aho kwirinda amarangamutima mabi, ingimbi n’abangavu bigishwa kuyamenya no kuyakira uko ari.

  • Cognitive defusion: iyi ntambwe yibanda ku guhindura uko bitwara ku ntekerezo zabo. Guhindura uko bitwara, bigira uruhare mu kugabanya imbaraga amarangamutima abafiteho.

  • Kuba mugihe urimo: ubu buryo bwibanda ku kuba umuntu yiyumva mu mwanya arimo akamenya koko uko biri kumubaho hatajemo guhindura uko ibintu biri muri uwo mwanya.

  • Wowe Ubwawe: ubu buryo bwo kuvura bwibanda ku gufasha kurebera hamwe intekerezo nk’ikintu gitandukanye n’imyitwarire

  • Indangagacciro: ACT ikora mu gufasha ingimbi n’abangavu kumenya indangagaciro zibafitiye umumaro.

  • Kwiyemeza: ikindi ACT ifasha ni uko ingimbi n’abangavu biyemeza kugira imyitwarire ibereye izabafasha kugumana ku ndangagaciro no kugera ku ntego zabo.


Inyungu za ACT

ACT igira umumaro mu kuvura indwara zitandukanye. Ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko ACT ikwiye mu kuvura abagaragaje ibimenyetso by’indwara y’icyoba n’ agahinda gakabije.


Icyo wakwitega kuri ACT

Muri ACT, ingimbi n’abangavu bakorana n’inzobere bakarebera hamwe ibibazo bibangamira amarangamutima yabo harimo nk’umubano bafitanye n’abandi, kwisuzugura n’ibindi bitera umujagararo. Ibiganiro muri ACT byibanda ku gushakira hamwe ibisubizo by’ibibazo bibangamiye ubuzima bw’ ingimbi cyangwa umwangavu, kumufasha kurenga ibikomere by’ahahise no kubona ubundi buryo bumufasha.

 

Inshamake kuri ACT

ACT ifasha mu kuvura ingimbi n’abangavu bafite ibibazo mu marangamutima. Binyuze mu gusobanukirwa no kwakira ayo maranamutima, ingimbi n’abangavu bashobora no kurenga ibikomere.

 


4. Dialectical Behavior Therapy

Ubu buryo buzwi nka DBT, ni bumwe mu buryo bw’imivurire ya CBT. Bwifashishwaga mu kuvura Indwara yo mu mutwe yitwa Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) itera umuntu kwibona no kubona abandi mu buryo budakwiye, bishobora guteza ibibazo by’imibanire hagati yabo. Nyuma yaho DBT yatangiye gukoreshwa mu kuvura izindi ndwara harimo attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD), agahinda gakabije, indwara zijyanye n’ imirire, ihungabana n’imyitwarire iganisha ku kwiyahura.


Amahame shingiro ya DBT

Uburyo bukoreshwa muri DBT harimo:

  • Umutuzo: ubu buryo bwibanda ku kwiga uko umuntu yakwibanda ku gihe cy’ubu ntagutekereza ku hashize cyangwa ahazaza.

  • Gukoresha uburyo bwo Kwirengangiza no kwikomeza kugira ngo umuntu ntakomeze kwibanda ku bimubabaza.

  • Gufasha ingimbi n’abangavu kugirana umubano ubafasha bo n’abandi

  • DBT ifasha ingimbi n’abangavu kumenya uko baha inyito amarangamutima no kugira inzira zibafasha guhangana n’ibibabangamiye mu buryo bukwiye.

Uko DBT Ikora

Ingimbi n’abangavu bavurwa hakoreshejwe DBT biga imiyitwarire iboneye binyuze mu matsinda y’ibigabiniro (Mvura Nkuvure). Ikindi ni uko bagirana ibiganiro byihariye na muganga aho bisanzura bakibanda ku bibazo bibangamiye ubuzima bwabo, bagashyira ibyo bize mu bikorwa.


Umumaro wa DBT

DBT ifasha ingimbi n’abangavu kugera ku rugero rwiza rwo kwiyakira, bakanabona ubumenyi bushya kandi bakiga uko bahangana n’umujagararo. Ubushakashatsi bwerekana ko DBT ikoreshwa mu kuvura abantu bakuru cyangwa abana bafite ibibazo bitandukanye.


Icyo wakwitega kuri DBT

Mu rugendo rw’ ubufashwa bahabwa, ingimbi n’abangavu bitabira ibiganiro byihariye ku muntu umwe n’ibindi bikorerwa mu matsinda aho hose babona ubumenyi bushya bwo kubafasha mu rugendo ruganisha ku kubohoka. Abagize ayo matsinda barafashanya, bakagerageza gushyira mu bikorwa ibyo babwiwe, bagasangizanya ubumenyi no kuvurana Imikoro ikorewe hanze y’ibiganiro nayo irakoreshwa cyane muri ubu buryo bw’imivurire.

 

Inshamake kuri DBT

DBT ni uburyo bumwe bukoreshwa mu buvuzi bwa CBT (Bwibanda ku bitekerezo n’imyitwarire), bukifashishwa mu gutanga ubuvuzi ku ingimbi n’abangavu bafite ibibazo bitandukanye. DBT yibanda ku mikoro ifasha mu gutuza; kandi igafasha ingimbi n’abangavu kugira ubumenyi bububoneye buteza imbere imibanire n’abandi, bakamenya gufata no kugenzura amarangamutima yabo.

 

Niba umwana wawe ugeze mu gihe cy’ubugimbi cyangwa ubwangavu abangamiwe n’ibibazo by’ubuzima bwo mu mutwe cyangwa imyitwarire itaboneye, bimenyeshe muganga umukurikirana. Bitewe n’ibisubizo by’isuzumwa, muganga ashobora gutanga inama yo kugana inzobere mu buzima bwo mutwe.


Inzobere mu buzima bwo mu mutwe akenshi bakoresha uburyo bw’ ibiganiro mu kugerageza kumva neza ikibazo gituma bitagenda neza mu buzima. Niyo mpamvu ibiganiro bishobora kwitabirwa n’ ingimbi cyangwa umwangavu ariko iyo bibaye ngombwa abagize umuryango nabo baratumirwa ngo batange umusanzu wabo.

Ubuvuzi bw’iyakure nabwo bwaba andi mahitamo meza ku ingimbi n’abangavu.

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