UBUVUZI BUKOREWE KU MIRONGO Y’IKORANABUHANGA

Ubu ni ubuvuzi butangwa hifashijwe murandasi. Serivisi zabwo zitangwa hakoreshejwe telefoni, uburyo bw’amashusho cyangwa kwandikirana ubutumwa bugufi aho guhura imbonankubone n’abaganga.


Ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko abarenga 70% batabona uko bagera ahari abaganga cyangwa inzobere zibafasha imbonankubone. Ariko gukoresha imirongo y’ikoranabuhaga mu buvuzi bw’ indwara zo mu mutwe biroroshye kandi umuntu yakwivuriza aho ari hose, mu gihe icyo aricyo cyose, waba ufite abana bato, udafite uko wajya ku ivuriro cyangwa udafite ubwishingizi.



Ubuvuzi bukorewe ku mirongo y’ikoranabuhanga ni iki?


Ni uburyo bukoreshwa ushaka ubufasha akavugana n’inzobere mu kuvura indwara zo mu mutwe hakoreshewe telefoni cyangwa mudasobwa, bigasimbura uburyo bwo kubonana imbonankubone mu biro. Uburyo bukoreshwa akenshi harimo telefoni, ubutumwa bugufi, email cyangwa kuvugana mu buryo bw’ amashusho; Ubuvuzi butangwa hifashijwe ikoranabuhanga butandukanye n’ ubundi butangwa kuko Abaganga bakoresha ikoranabuhanga mu busanzwe ntibakora isuzuma ku ndwara zimwe na zimwe zo mu mutwe nka ADHD, Icyoba gishingiye ku mpinduka za buri munsi kuko bisaba kwitegereza umurwayi, ariko uko ubu buryo bukura umunsi ku munsi, ubundi buryo bugenda buhangwa.


Ese ubuvuzi bukorwa hifashishjwe ikoranabuhanga butanga icyizere?


Kuvura indwara zo mu mutwe hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga bigira umumaro nk’ ubundi bwakozwe imbonankubone. Ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko:

  • Ubuvuzi bw’imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire (CBT) bukorewe ku mirongo y’ ikoranabuhanga byagagajwe ko ari uburyo bukwiye bwo kuvura indwara z’icyoba.

  • Muri 2018 kandi icyigwa (report) cyashyizwe ahabona na Journal of Anxiety Disorders cyerekanye ko CBT ikorewe ku mirongo y’ikoranabuhanga itanga umusaruro nku buvuzi bwatanzwe imbonankubone ku barwayi ba: major depression, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder

  • Muri 2014, mu cyigwa cyasohotse muri Journal of Affective Disorders byagaragajwe ko kuvura agahinda gakabije hakoreshewe ikoranabuhanga bitanga umusaruro nko kuvura umurwayi mu buvuzi bwatanzwe imbonankubone.


Ni bande bahabwa ubuvuzi ku mirongo y’ ikoranabuhanga?


Hari impamvu nyinshi zatuma uhitamo uburyo bw’ iyakure. Abantu benshi bashimishwa no kudakora ingendo ndende bagiye kureba muganga. Abandi nabo bagorwa no kusiga abana cyagwa bakareka akazi kubera gahunda ya muganga. Muri ibyo byose, ubuvuzi bukorewe ku mirongo y’ ikoranabuhanga ni igisubizo, burakwiye, ni uburyo buhendutse, bukoreshwa ahariho hose, mu masaha yose. Ubu buryo kandi bugufasha kuvugana n’ inzobere mu buri munsi, bitandukanye no kumureba rimwe mu cyumweru.


Ubuvuzi bukozwe ku mirongo y’ ikoranabuhanga bwakoreshwa kuri buri wese ushaka ubufasha mu ku ndwara zo mumutwe. Ubu buryo burakwiye mu guha ubufasha abantu bafite umujagaro, ubwoba, agahinda gakabije, ibibazo by’ imibanire, ihungabana, ibibabazo byo gusinzira n’ ikoreshwa by’ ibiyobyabwenge.


Nubwo bimeze gutyo, uburyo bwo kuvurwa ku mirongo y’ikoranabuhanga ntago bworoshye gukoreshwa kuri buri wese. Bushobora kutaba uburyo bwiza niba:

  • Umwana ari muto.

  • Utamenyereye ikoranabuhanga.

  • Ufite uburwayi bwo mu mutwe bukomeye.

  • Utekerereza kugirira nabi abandi cyang wowe ubwawe.

  • Ufite ibitekerezo byo Kwiyahura.

Kugereranya uburyo bukoresha ikoranabuhanga mu buvuzi


Ushobora kwibaza ibi bibazo bikurikira niba ushaka ivuriro ritanga ubufasha ku mirongo y’ikoranabuhanga:

  • Ese ndashaka kuvugana n’inzobere mu buzima bwo (licensed therapist) mu mutwe cyangwa nshaka umutoza (life coach)?

  • Ese naba nshaka ubuvuzi bw’ umuntu umwe, ubwabafite urugo cyangwa ni byiza ko mfashirizwa mu itsinda?

  • Byaba bigize icyo ibivuze niba inzobere duhuje idini, igitsina, cyangwa aho duturuka?

  • Ese iryo vuriro ni ntamakemwa kandi bazagira amakuru yanjye ibanga?

  • Ese batanga uburyo bwunyoroheza mwitumanaho mugihe nkoranye nabo?

  • Birashoboka ko nakwihitiramo umpa ubufasha cyangwa bampitiramo bitewe n’ ikibazo mfite?

  • Ese mbanza gusobanurirwa neza ibiciro n’ inzira zo kwishyura mbere yo guhabwa ubuvuzi?

  • Ese nkeneye gafashwa n’ inzobere mu ndwara runaka?

  • Ese byaba byiza kwishyurira rimwe cyangwa bizakorwa kuri buri kiganiro nzagirana n’ inzobere?

Guhitamo Inzobere mukorana


Nk’uko uburyo bwo kubonana imbonankubone bukora, abagufasha biterwa n’uburyo bakoresha. Hari abaganga b’indwara zo mu mutwe, inzobere zivura hareshjwe ibiganiro cyangwa ugasanga bombi barahari, hari kandi abajyanama babihuguriwe.


Buri wese afite uko akora, ariko rimwe na rimwe usanga abantu babitiranya. Aha hari itandukaniro ryabo, n’uko bakora:


Abaganga b’indwara zo mu mutwe (Psychiatrists)

Bahera ku masomo mu ishami ry’ ubuganga mugihe cy’ imyaka 4, nyuma yaho bagabwa amahugurwa yihariye ku bintu bigira uruhare ku buzima bwo mu mutwe. Nubwo bashobora gukoresha uburyo bw’ibiganiro, bibanda ku miti, bashora gutanga ari uko babifitiye ibyangombwa. Aba kandi bakora isuzuma ku barwayi.


Inzobere zivura indwara zo mu mutwe(Psychologists)

Nabo bafite inzego z’ ubumenyi zitandukanye ariko zibemerera gutanga ubuvuzi bw’ indwara zo mu mutwe Ingero zabo harimo:

  • PsyD-level Psychologists: biga ishuri ry’imyaka itandatu, kandi intego yabo ni ugutanga ubuvuzi bw’indwara zo mu mutwe hakoreshejwe buryo bw’ ibiganiro.

  • PhD-level Psychologists: aba bakora ubuvuzi bw’indwara zo mu mutwe n’ ubushakashatsi

  • Masters-level psyologist: ni abarangije amasomo y’ icyiciro cyagatatu cya kaminuza mu ishami ryo kuvura indwara zo mu mutwe.

Uburambe buke ntabwo bisobanura ko uzakira ubuvuzi bwo hasi-burigihe, biterwa nuwabutanze.


Abajyanama b’umiryango (Licensed family and marriage therapists (LMFTs))

Baba bararangije amasomo y’ icyiciro cya gatatu cya kaminuza mu gufasha imiryango n’ abafite ingo. Bibanda ku gufasha abantu gukemura ibibazo by’ imibanire mu bantu ku giti cyabo, abashyingiranywe, abateganya gushinga urugo n’ imiryango muri rusange.


Abakozi bashinzwe ivugururamibereho (Social workers)

Bafite ubumenyi bwo gukora ubuvuzi no gutanga inama ariko byibanda ku mibanire n’ imibereho ya buri munsi. Nkuko aba Psyologists bakora, Abakozi bashinzwe ivugururamibereho nabo ntibatanga imiti. Harimo:


  • Abarangije amasomo y’ icyiciro cya gatatu cya kaminuza bashobora gutanga ubuvuzi mu buryo bw’ibiganiro ariko bayobowe. Hari n’ abandi bakora ubwo buvuzi batayobowe bitewe n’uko bujujue ibisabwa byo gukora uwo mwuga.

  • Abajyanama b’ umwuga (Licensed professional counselors (LPCs)): aba barangiza icyiciro cya gagtu cya kaminuza mu bujyanama ku bibazo byo mu mutwe. Ntibatanga ubuvuzi mu ibiganiro cyangwa imiti, ahubwo bafasha ababagana gushakira umuti ibibazo bafite mu gihe gito.


Abahuguriwe gutega amatwi (Trained listeners )

Ni abajyanama batagize amasomo y’ ubuvuzi bukoresha uburyo bw’ ibiganiro ariko bagahugurirwa kumenya uburyo bwo gutega amatwi babifashijwemo n’abakoresha babo. Ntibashobora gutanga inama ariko batanga ubufasha bw’ amarangamutima iyo ukenye inzobere.


Nkuko n’ahandi bimeze, bashobora guhabwa amahugurwa yibanda ku buryo bumwe bwo kuvura. Bamwe bashobora gutanga ubufasha bwa Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Ubuvuzi bw’imitekerereze n’ imytwarire) cyangwa Dalectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) na EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) ikoreshwa mu kuvura ihungabana. Hari n’ubundi buryo bukoreshwa mu gutanga ubufasha ku bibazo by’ imibanire harimo emotionally focused couple’s therapy (EFCT) and the Gottman method.


UKo wabona Inzobere igufasha mu buryo bukwiye


Amwe mu mavuriro akoresha inzira z’ikoranabuhanga mu gutanga serivisi z’ ubuvuzi bashobora kuguhitiramo, abandi bakubaha amahitamo yawe. Uko bigenda kose, hibandwa ku kibazo ufite n’ intego z’ ubufasha uzahabwa kahagenderwa ku bisuzo utanga mbere yo gutangira urugendo rw’ ubuvuzi.


Andi mavuriro aguha umwanya wo kubanza kureba imyirondoro y’ abaganga n’inzobere, n’ ibyo bakora, ugahitamo uwo wifuza gukorana nawe. Niba uhitamo uwo wifuza ko agufasha, hari ibintu ugomba kwitaho mbere yo guhamo. Reba uwo uzashobora kwisanzuraho kandi umenye icyo ubwo bufasha bugamije:

  • Ese bizakorohera kubohokera kubwira ibyawe muntu w’ igitsina, idini cyangwa imyaka runaka?

  • Ese hari icyo bitwaye gufashwa n’ umuntu musangiye aho muturuka?

  • Ese urumva wakoran n’ uwahuguriwe wibanda mu kuvura ihungabana cyangwa ibibazo by’ imibanire?

  • Ese urashaka kubona umuganga w’ inzobere mu mibanire?

Amavuriro amwe abanza gutanga igihe cy’ igerageza ku buryo ubanza kumenya neza uko uzakora n’ inzobere mbere y’ uko mutangira nyirizina.


Kubona inzobere wumva uzabohokera kubwira ibibazo byawe, ni ingenzi ko uhitamo witonze. Akenshi ibi bisobanuye ko abantu bagerageza gukorana n’ abavuzi cyangwa abajyanama benshi mbere yo kubona ukwiye. Mu bushakashatsi bwakoze, bwerekanye ko 8% by’ abantu bagannye amavuriro 33 aribo bonyine babonanye n’ umukozi wita ku buzima bwo mu mutwe.


Bishora kugorana gihitamo uwo muzakorana, cyane cyane iyo ufite ibibazo bisaba ko abagufasha bagomba kuba bafite ubumenyi buri ku rwego ruhanitse. Ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko abafite urusobe runini rw’ ibibazo, amahirwe yo gukira ariyongera iyo afashwijwe n’ inzobere zibifite ubushbozi buri ku rwegwo hejuru.


Ubushakashatsi bumwe bwerekanye ko ibikorwa byo kuvura byibanda kw’ itsinda ryabantu bahuje umuco bitanga umusaruro inshuro enye kuruta ibikorwa byo kuvura bikorewe kw’ itsinda rizwe n’ abantu baturuka mumico itandukanye.


Igiciro cyo guhabwa ubuvuzi ku mirongo y’ ikoranabuhanga


Muri rusange, ubuvuzi bukozwe hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga butwara igiciro gito ugereranyije n’ ubukorwa imbonankubone. Nubwo bimeze gutyo, ntago amavuriro yose akora kimwe.


Bamwe mu batanga serivisi z’ ubuvuzi ku ikoranabuhanga, bahitamo gukoresha uburyo bwo kwishyurira rimwe mugihe runaka, bivuze ko umuntu ushaka ubufasha yishyura igiciro runaka ku kwezi yo guhahbwa serivisi z’ ubuvuzi harimo kuvugana kuri telefoni cyangwa mu buryo bw’ amashusho. Kwishyurira rimwe nibwo buryo bworoshye cyane cyane iyudafite ubwishingizi bwishyura buri kimwe.


Andi mavuriro akoresha uburyo b’ ikoranabuhanga ahitamo kwemera uburyo bwo kwishyura kuri buri serivisi wahawe. Aba baca ibiciro bijyanye n’ urwego rw’ ubumenyi cyangwa ubuzobere bw’ utanga ubufasha, nubwo rimwe na rimwe aho utuye habigiramo uruhare. Ubu buryo bwo kwishyura kuri buri kiganiro wagiranye n’ ukuvura nibwo buhenze ugererenyije no kwishyurira rimwe servisi zose uzahabwa, nubwo igiciro ari gito ugererenyije no kubonana na muganga amaso ku maso.


Ubwishingizi bwaba bwishyura serivisi z’ ubuvuzi bukorewe ku mirongo y’ ikoranabuhanga?


Kuba ubwishingizi bwakwishyura izi serivisi biterwa n’ukobakora. Amwe mu mavuriro akoresha ikoranabuhanga mu gutanga ubuvuzi bw’ indwara zo mu mutwe akorana n’amasosiyete y’ ubwishingizi kugira ngo bafashe uwivuza. Bisobanuye ko ushobora kwishyura igiciro utanze amafaranga make kuyo wakagombye kwishyura, waba ubikoreye rimwe cyangwa buri uko uhuye n’ inzobere. Ariko, kandi banza urebe neza niba bigushobokera kuko amwe mu mavuriro atemera gukorana n’ amasosiyete y’ ubwishingizi.


Andi mavuriro atanga ubuvuzi ku mirongo y’ikoranabuhanga yo ntakorana n’ ayo ma sosiyete mu buryo buziguye, bityo ntibashobora kubaha inyemezabwishyu. Bivuze ko ukwiye kureba neza niba ubwishingizi ufite bwagufasha kwishyura ubuvuzi wahawe ku mirongo y’ikoranabuhanga. Niba babikora, uzakenera kwerekana neza inyamezabwishyu wahawe mu gihe wivuzaga kugira ngo uyasubizwe n’iyo sosiyete y’ubwishingizi. Mu bwishingizi bumwe bashobora guhitamo kwishyura igice c’ igiciro cya serivisi wahawe.


Amwe mu mavuriro atanga serivisi z’ ubuvuzi butanzwe ku mirongo y’ ikoranabuhanga bakorana n’abakoresha ku buryo bashobora kugabanya igiciro cya serivisi z’ ubuvuzi zihabwa abakozi babo.


Ese Ubuvuzi bukorewe ku mirongo y’ikoranabuhanga buratekanye?


Abakora umwuga wo kuvura indwara zo mu mutwe bagomba kubahiriza amategeko agenga uwo mwuga, ay’ inzego z’ ubuyobozi n’ andi yo kurinda ibanga n’ umutekano w’amakuru yatanzwe n’abahawe ubufasha. Buri rubuga rwerekana uko amakuru arindirwa umutekano.


Ikindi ni uko imbuga nyinshi zemerera abantu gukoresha amazina y’ akabyiniriro(nubwo mubisanzwe bagusaba gutanga izina na numero ya terefone)

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