Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire (Cognitive behavioral therapy- CBT) ni iki?

Cognitive behavioral therapy (Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire) ni ubwoko bw’ ubuvuzi bw’ indwara zo mu mutwe butangwa hakoreshejwe uburyo bw’ ibiganiro bugafasha abantu kwiga kubona no guhindura imitekerereze igira ingaruka mbi ku myitwarire n’ amarangamutima.


Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire bwibanda ku guhindura imitekerereze itabereye ishobora kwongera ibibazo by’ amarangamutima, agahinda gakabije n’ umuhangayiko. Iyo mitekerereze kandi igira ingaruka ku mimerere y’ umuntu.



Ubuvuzi bwa CBT (Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire) bufasha kubona, gukora, no guhindura iyo mitekerereze idakwiye ikaba mizima kandi ifite intumbero nziza.


Ubwoko bw’ Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire


Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire burimo uburyo bwinshi bwo kumenya no kuvura imitekerereze, amarangamutina n’ imyitwarire. Ubu buryo bushobora kuva ku biganiro bikorwa hagati y’ inzobere n’ umurwayi bikagera ku rugero umurwayi nawe ubwe yifasha. Hari uburyo bwihariye bw’ ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire, harimo:

  • Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze: bwibanda ku kumenya no guhindura imitekerereze idakwiye, n’ ingaruka igira ku marangamutima n’ imyitwarire.

  • Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT): ubu ni ubuvuzi bureba ku mitekerereze n’ imyitwarire ariko bikajyana no kugenzura amarangamutima n’ umutuzo.

  • Multimodal therapy ni ubuvuzi bugendera ku ihame ko ibibazo byo mu mutwe bigomba kuvurwa hagendewe ku nguni zirindwi zuzuzanya: imyitwarire, amarangamutima, ibyiyumviro, kwibona, ibitekerezo, imibanire no kwita ku buryo umubiri ukora.

  • Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) ni ubuvuzi burangwa no kureba imyizerere idakwiye n’ uburyo bwo guhangana nayo kandi bikajyana no kumenya impinduka ziba muri iyo mitekerereze.

Mu gihe buri bwoko bw’ ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire bugendana n’ uburyo bwabwo, ubu bwoko bwose bukoreshwa mu kumenya no kuvura imitekerereze ituma habaho ibibazo byo mu mutwe.


Uburyo bukoreshwa mu mivurire y’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire


Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire burenze kumenya ibibazo by’ imitekerereze; bugera no ku buryo butandukanye bufasha abantu gutsinda iyo mitekerereze ibaganisha habi. Ubwo buryo bwiganzamo kubika amakuru mu nyandiko, kumenya umukoro wawe, uburyo bwo kuruhuka no kurangaza ibitekerezo.


1. Kumenya imitekerereze idakwiye


Ni byiza ko umuntu yiga uko ibitekerezo, ibyiyumviro n’ ibiba mu buzima bwacu bitera imyitwarire idakwiye. Urwo rugendo rushobora kugorana, cyane cyane iyo abantu bakomererwa no kwigenzura, ariko rushobora gutuma umuntu yimenya birambuye kandi bigira umumaro mu rugendo rw’ ubuvuzi umurwayi ahabwa.


2. Kwitoza uburyo bushya


Ni iby’ ingenzi gutangira kugerageza ubumenyi bushya bushobora gukoreshwa mu buzima bwa buri munsi. Urugero, umuntu ufite indwara ifitanye isano n’ ikoreshwa ry’ ibiyobyabwenge ashobora kwitoza uburyo bushya bwo kwirinda ibyamukururira mu ikoreshwa ryabyo, kandi akabusubiramo kenshi kugira ngo yirinde ibyo byose byamukururira mu kubikoresha.


3. Kugira intego


Gushyiraho intego bishobora kuba intambwe nziza mu rugendo rwo gukira indwara zo mu mutwe kandi bikanagufasha gukora impinduka zo kwita ku buzima bwawe. Mu buvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire, inzobere igufasha kubona ubumenyi bukenewe no kugire intego nshya, akakwigisha uko wamenya intego ibereye, gutandukanya intego z’ igihe gito n’ ikinini, kandi zikaba zujuje ibisabwa(zirasa ku ntego, zifatika, uzashobora kwesa, zikwiye kandi zigendanye n’ igihe ufite) kandi ukareba ibigufasha kwesa iyo mihigo.


4. Gukemura ibibazo


Kugira ubumenyi mu gukemura ibibazo bishobora kugufasha kubona no guhangana n’ ibibazo by’ ubuzima; ibinini cyangwa ibito kandi bikabagabanya ingaruka z’ ibibazo byo mu mutwe.

Gukemura ibibazo biri mu buvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire bikorwa mu ntambwe eshanu:


  1. Kumenya ikibazo

  2. Gukora urutonde rw’ ibisubizo bishoboka

  3. Kugenzura ubushobozi n’ imbaraga nke kuri buri gisubuzo

  4. Guhitamo igisubizo uzakoresha

  5. Gushyira mu bikorwa igisubizo wafashe.

5. Kwigenzura


Kwigenzura (bizwi nk’ umurimo wo kwigarukaho) ni igice cy’ ingenzi mu buvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire kijyana no kumenya imyitwarire, ibimenyetso cyanwa ibindi by’ umuntu ku giti cye kandi bikajyana ko kubisangiza inzobere ikwitaho. Kwigenzura bishobora guha amakuru inzobere bikamufasha kuguha ubuvuzi bukwiye.


Ibibazo Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire (Cognitive behavior therapy) bukoreshwa mu kuvura

Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire bushobora gukora mu gihe gito, bigafasha abantu kwibanda ku bitekerezo n’ imyizerere bafite ubu. CBT ikoreshwa mu kuvura indwara zo mu mutwe, zirimo:

  • Ububata n’ ikoreshwa ry’ ibiyobyabwenge

  • Ibibazo by’ umujinya ukabije

  • Umuhangayiko

  • Indwara ya Bipolar

  • Indwara zirangwa n’ imyitwarire itabereye mu mirire

  • Kubura amahwemo(Panic attacks)

  • Personality disorders

  • Ubwoba bw’ ibintu

Hejuru y’ ibyo bibazo byo mu mutwe, ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire byagaragaye ko bufasha abantu guhangana nabyo:

  • Uburibwe bukabije cyangwa indwara ikomeye

  • Gutandukana kw’ abashakanye

  • Kubura uwo ukunda

  • Ibibazo byo gusinzira

  • Kwiha agaciro gake

  • Ibibazo by’ imibanire

  • Guhangana n’ umujagararo(stress)

Inyungu zitangwa n’ ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire


Icyo ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitware bushingiyeho ni uko ibitekerezo n’ ibyiyumviro bigira uruhare rukomeye mu myitwarire. Urugero, umuntu umara igihe atekereza ku mpanuka z’ indege, n’ ibiza byo mu kirere ashobora kwirinda kugendera mu kirere.


Intego ya mbere y’ ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire ni ukwigisha abantu ko nubwo batabasha kugenzura ibibaho byose mu buzima bwabo, bashobora kugenzura ubusobanuro babiha no guhangana n’ ibyo ibibazo bahura nabyo.


Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire akenshi bugira umumaro mu buryo bukurikira:

  • Butuma umuntu agira imitekerereze iboneye akamenya neza itabereye kandi akenshi bikaba ari ibitekerezo byatuma amererwa nabi mu marangamutima n’ imimerere.

  • Ni uburyo bw’ ubuvuzi bukorwa mu gihe gito, urugero: koroherwa bigaragara hagati y’ ibiganiro bitanu na 20.

  • Byagaragaye ko ari uburyo bukwiye bwo kuvura imyitwarire itabereye.

  • Akenshi ubu buvuzi, burahendutse kurusha ubundi buryo bukoreshwa mu kuvura indwara zo mu mutwe.

  • Bushobora gukorwa ku mirongo y’ ikoranabuhanga cyangwa imbonankubone

  • Ubu buvuzi kandi bukorerwa abantu badakeneye kuvurwa indwara zo mu mutwe hakoreshejwe imiti.

Umwe mu mimaro ikomeye y’ ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire ni uko bufasha umurwayi kubona uburyo bubereye bwo guhangana n’ ibibazo mu gihe arimo n’ ikizaza.


Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire bwatangiye kuzamuka mu myaka ya 1960, bukaba bwaratangiye kubera umurimo w’ umuganga w’indwara zo mu mutwe Aaron Beck, wavuze ko ubwoko bw’ ibitekerezo tugira, nabyo bishobora kugira uruhare mu bibazo by’ amarangamutima. Beck yavuze ko ari “Ibitekerezo bidakwiye” maze atangira inzira yo gukora ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze.


Mu gihe ubuvuzi bw’ imyitwarire bwibandaga kw’ ihuriro, gutera imbaraga n’ ibihano mu guhindura imyitwarire, ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze bwo bwibanda ku buryo ibitekerezo n’ ibyiyumviro bigira ingaruka ku myitwarire.


Uyu munsi, ubuvuzi bw’ imitekererze n’ imyitwarire ni bumwe mu buryo bukoreshwa mu kuvura kandi bwerekanye ko bukwiye mu kwita ku bantu bafite ibibazo byo mu mutwe harimo umuhangayiko, agahinda, indwara zirangwa n’ imyitwarire itaboneye mu gufungura, ibibazo byo gusinzira, obsessive-compulsive disorder, kubura amahwemo(Panic disorder), ihungabana n’ ikoreshwa ry’ ibiyobyabwenge.

  • CBT ni uburyo bukwiye bwo kuvura indwara zo mu mutwe zirangwa n’ imyitwarire itaboneye mu gufungura.

  • CBT byagaragaye ko ari ubuvuzi bukwiye ku bafite ibibazo by’ imisinzirire n’ izindi ndwara z’ umubiri zishobora gutuma umuntu adasinzira neza, abafite uburibwe bukomeye n’ indwara z’agahinda.

  • Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire byemejwe ko bufasha mu kuvura abafite ibimenyetso by’ agahinda n’ umuhangayiko mu bana, ingimbi n’ abangavu.

  • Mu bushakashatsi bwahuje ubushakashatsi 41, bwerekanye ko ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire bufasha abantu bafite indwara z’ umuhangayiko harimo obsessive-compulsive disorder n’ ihungabana.

  • Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire bugirira umumaro abafite ibibazo by’ ikoreshwa ry’ ibiyobyabwenge biciye mu kubongerera ukwifata, kwirinda ibibakururira mu ikoreshwa ryabyo no kubafasha kugira uburyo bukwiye bwo guhangana n’ ibibazo by’ ubuzima.

Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire ni bumwe mu buvuzi bwakozweho ubushakashatsi bwinshi kuko bwibanda ku ntego z’ umuntu kandi bumara igihe gito.


Ibyo wakwitaho n’ imbogamizi z’ ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire


Hari imbogamizi zikunze kuboneka mu gihe abantu bavurwa hakoreshejwe ubu buryo. Harimo:


1. Bishobora kugorana kubona impinduka


Mbere, abarwayi bamwe na bamwe bavugaga ko imitekerereze yabo idwakwiye, bakabimenya ariko bikabakomerera kuyihindura.


2. Ni ubuvuzi bufite umurongo bugenderaho


Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire ntago bwita ku mitekerereze ititaweho na nyirayo nkuko muri Psychoanalysis bimera. Akenshi ibereye abarwayi bumva bahawe umutuzo no kubona inzobere ibayobora, ikabaha umurongo bagenderaho bakemura ibibazo byabo.


3. Abantu bagomba kuba bafite ubushake bwo guhinduka


Kugira ngo ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire bugire umumaro bwitezweho, umuntu ubuhabwa agomba kuba yiteguye kandi afite ubushake bwo gukoresha igihe n’ imbaraga asesengura ibitekerezo n’ ibyiyumviro bye. Uko kwikorera isesengura bishobora gukomerera nyirubwite, ariko ni uburyo bwiza bwo kumenya uko ibitubamo bigira ingaruka ku myitwarire.


4. Intambwe ziterwa Buhoro buhoro


Akenshi, ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire ni urugendo rusaba gutera intwambwe ntoya kugira ngo umuntu abone impinduka mu myitwarire ye. Urugero: Umuntu ufite ikibazo cyo kugira ubwoba mu ruhame ashobora gutangira atekereza ibintu bimukururira kugira ubwoba iyo ari mu bandi. Ubutaha, bashobora kwiga uburyo baganira n’ abandi, umuryango n’ abo bakorana. Uko bakomera gukora no bagere ku ntego zabo, urugendo ntirukiba ruteye ubwoba kandi biroroha kugera ku ntego.


Uko watangira mu buvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire


Ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire ni uburyo bukwiye bwo kuvura indwara zitandukanye zo mu mutwe. Niba wumva ko wowe cyangwa uwo ukunda ashobora kugira inyungu bivuye kuri ubu buvuzi, gerageza izi ntwambwe zikurirkira:

  • Vugana na muganga wawe kandi ushake inzobere zifite ibyangombwa byo gutanga ubuvuzi bw’ indwara zo mu mutwe.

  • Hitamo uburyo bukoroheye: gukora imbonankubone cyangwa ku mirongo y’ ikoranabuhanga.

  • Menya neza niba ubwishingizi bwawe bwishyura ubuvuzi bw’ imitekerereze n’ imyitwarire, niba bikunda, menya umubare w’ ibiganiro byishyurwa nabwo ku mwaka.

  • Uzuza ibisabwa na muganga: harimo kuzuza inyandiko zibika amakuru, kurinda ibanga ry’ amakuru, ubwishingizi, imiti ukoresha, ikizamini ku bimenyetso, n’ amasezerano yo gukorana. Niba kandi uvurwa hakoreshejwe imirongo y’ ikoranabuhanga, ushobora kuzuza izo nyandiko mu buryo bw’ ikoranabuhanga.

  • Witegure gusubiza ibibazo ku mpamvu zakuzanye, ibimenyetso ugaragaza n’ amateka yawe harimo, uko wakuze, amashuri wize, akazi, umubano (mu muryango, uwo mukundana, cyangwa inshuti) n’ uburyo ubayeho muri ibi bihe.

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