MENYA INDWARA ZO MU MUTWE UKO ZI SOBANURWA, IBIMENYETSO, N’ UBUVUZI


Indwara zo mu mutwe zerekanywa n’ ibimenyetso by’ imitwarire n’ imitekereze bigira ingaruka ku mikorere y’ umuntu mu buzima bwe. Izi ndwara zikabangamira umuntu ufite ibimenyetso byazo.


Nubwo hari indwara nyinshi zo mu mutwe. Uru rutonde rwerekana uko indwara zishyirwa mu byiciro nkuko byagaragajwe mu gitabo the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Icyo gitabo ni kimwe mu bikoreshwa cyane mu gusobanura indwara zo mu mutwe no kwerekana ibimenyetso bigenderwaho mu gusuzuma indwara zo mu mutwe.



Neurodevelopmental Disorders


Izi ni indwara zo mu mutwe, ibimenyetso byazo bigaragara mu bana bato, ingimbi n’ abangavu. Izi ndwara harimo:


Intellectual Development Disorder


Indwara igaragaza ibimenyetso mbere y’ imyaka 18 y’ ubukure. Irangwa no kugira ubushobozi buke mu mitekerereze n’ imyitwarire yo kwirwanaho. Ubwo bushobozi buke bugaragara iyo umwana akoze ikizamini cy’ imtekerereze (IQ test), bikemezwa iyo abonye amanota ari munsi ya 70. Ibijyanye n’ imyitwarire ni imirimo isaba gushyirwa mu bikorwa buri munsi nko kwiyitaho, gusabana n’ abandi n’ ubumenyi bwo gukora ibikorwa bya buri munsi.


Global Developmental Delay


Iyi ndwara iboneka mu bana bafite munsi y’ imyaka itanu y’ ubukure. Irangwa no gutinda gutekereza, kuvuga, gukora ibikorwa bimwe na bimwe no kugenda. Isuzumwa ku bana batari bagira ubushobozi bwo gukora ikizamini cy’ imitekerereze. Iyo umwana agize imyaka yo kuba yakora icyo kizamini, ashobora gusuzumwa intellectual development disorder (Yavuzwe hejuru)


Izi ndwara zo mu mutwe zigira ingaruka ku bushobozi bwo gukoresha, kumva cyangwa kumenya ururimi no kuvuga. Mu gitabo cyerekana indwara zo mu mutwe (DSM-5), harimo ubwoko bune bw’ izi ndwara: language disorder, speech sound disorder, childhood-onset fluency disorder (stuttering), and social (pragmatic) communication disorder.


Autism Spectrum Disorder


Autism irangwa no kugira ubushobozi buke (bimara igihe kirekire) mu gusabana no kuvugana n’abandi kandi bikaba mu nguni nyinshi z’ ubuzima, bikajyana n’ imyitwarire imwe kandi yisubiramo.


Igitabo cy’ indwara zo mu mutwe (DSM) cyerekana ko ibimenyetso by’ indwara ya autism spectrum disorder bigomba kuba biboneka ku mwana ukiri muto kandi ibyo bimenyetso bigatuma umwana adakora neza mu bice bitandukanye bigize ubuzima bwe harimo imibanire n’ imikorere ye ya buri munsi.


Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)


Iyi ndwara irangwa kudatuza, guhubuka no gukora ibintu nta bwitonzi burimo. Ibi bikabangamira umuntu ufite ibyo bimenyetso mu nguni ebyiri cyangwa zirenze harimo mu rugo, mu kazi, ku ishuri no mu bikorwa bimuhuza n’abandi.


DSM-5(Igitabo cy’ indwara zo mu mutwe) cyerekana ko kugira ngo iyi ndwara yemezwe na muganga, ibi bimenyetso bigomba kugaragara mbere y’ imyaka 12 kandi bikagira ingaruka ku mibanire, akazi cyangwa mu mitsindire yo mu ishuri.


Bipolar and Related Disorders


Indwara ya Bipolar irangwa no guhindagurika kw’amarangamutima bikajyana n’ ibikorwa umuntu akora, n’ imbaraga akoresha. Akenshi bijyana no kugira ibyishimo birenze n’ ibihe by’ agahinda. Iyo umuntu yagize ibyishimo birenze byitwa mania or hypomania.


Mania(Ibihe by’ umunezero udasanzwe)


Mania irangwa no guca mu bihe by’ amarangamutima y’ umunezero, kumva ubohotse nta burakari akenshi biherekezwa no kugira imbaraga nyinshi zo gukora. Ibihe bya mania birangwa no kurangara, kwiyenza no kwigirira icyizere cyane.


Abantu bagaragaraho ibimenyetso bya mania akenshi bagira ibikorwa bishobora kubagiraho ingaruka z’ igihe kirekire nko gukina urusimbi no gutakaza amafaranga mensi bahaha.


Depressive episodes (Ibihe by’agahinda)


Ibi bihe birangwa no kumva ubabaye bikajyana no kubura ubushake bwo gukora ibintu byagushimishaga mbere. Birangwa kandi no kumva ufite kwishinja, umunaniro n’ uburakari.


Muri ibi bihe by’agahinda, abantu bafite indwara ya Bipolar bashobora kubura ubushake bwo gukora ibyabashimishaga, bakagira ibibazo mu gusinzira n’ ibitekerezo byo kwiyahura.


Ibihe by’ umunezero udasanzwe n’ againda bishobora gutera ubwoba nyirubwite cyangwa umuryano, inshuti n’ abandi babona iyo myitwarire ijyana no guhindagurika mu marangamutima. Kubw’ amahirwe, ubuvuzi bukwiye (bwifashisha imiti cyangwa ibiganiro) buratangwa kandi bugafasha abantu bafite indwara ya bipolar mu guhangana n’ ibimenyetso by’ iyi ndwara.


Indwara z’ umuhangayiko(Anxiety Disorders)


Izi ni indwara zirangwa no kugira ubwoba buhoraho, kubura umutuzo n’ imyitwarire idakwiye. Ubwoba bwerekeye kintu cya nyacyo cyangwa cyatekerejwe. Umuhangayiko akenshi urangwa no gutekereza ko ikintu kibi gishobora kwaduka/kuba mu gihe kizaza.


Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)


Iyi ndwara irangwa no kubura amahwemo ku bintu biba mu buzima bwa buri munsi. Nubwo umujagararo no kwibaza cyane ari ibice by’ ubuzima bwacu, ibimenyetso by’ iyi ndwara bituma umuntu atamererwa neza cyangwa ngo akore mu buryo bukwiye.


Social Anxiety Disorder (gutinya uruhame)


Iyi ndwara irangwa no kugira ubwoba bwo kurebwa cyangwa gucirwa urubanza. Umuhangayiko uterwa n’ iyi ndwara ushobora kugira ingaruka zikomeye ku buzima bw’ umuntu. Bikaba byamukomerera gukora neza mu ishuri, akazi cyangwa ahandi ahurira n’ abandi.


Specific Phobias (Ubwoba bw’ ikintu runaka)


Ubu ni ubwoba bw’ ikintu runaka biboneka mu bidukiije. Ingero: ubwoba bw’ ibitagangurirwa, gutinya amazu maremare cyangwa gutinya inzoka.


Ubwoko bune bw’ ubwoba ku bintu runaka burimo: gutinya Ibiza (inkuba, imirabyo, umuyaga), gutinya ibikorerwa ka muganga(kubaga, gukurwa amenyo, ibikoresho byo mu mavuriro), inyamaswa( imbwa, inzoka, amasazi) n’ ahantu (ahantu hafunganye, kuva mu rugo, cyangwa gutwara imodoka).


Iyo bahuye n’ ikintu batinya, abantu bafite ubu bwoba bashobora kugira iseseme, gutitira, gutera cyane k’ umutima no kugira ubwoba ko bashobora gupfa.


Panic Disorder


Ni indwara yo mu mutwe irangwa no kubura umutuzo kandi ntakintu kidasanzwe cyabaye. Abantu bafite iyo ndwara akenshi barahangayika bagatekerereza ko bashobora kongera kubura amahwemo.


Abantu batangira kwirinda ahantu cyangwa gukora ibikorwa bishobora kubakururira ibyago byo kubura amahwemo, cyane cyane aho banyuze cyangwa batekereza ko bazagera. Ibi bishobora gutuma umuntu adakora neza mu bikorwa bya buri munsi kandi bikamukomerera gukora gahunda ze.


Separation Anxiety Disorder


Iyi ni indwara yo guhangayika akenshi irangwa no kugira ubwoba bwinshi bwo gutandukanywa n’ abantu bakuba hafi. Abantu benshi bazi ko abana bato aribo bagira ubu bwoba ariko ibimenyetso byayo bigaragara ku bantu bakuze.


Umuntu ufite ibi bimenyetso ashobora kwirinda kuva mu rugo, kujya ku ishuri cyangwa gushinga urugo kugira ngo agumane n’ abamwitaho bya hafi.


Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders (Indwara zijyanye n’ ihungabana)


Indwara zijyanye n’ ihungabana zibaho kubera ko umunti aba yaranyuze mu bihe bikomeye bigatuma abiburira igisobanuro. Izi ndwara mbere zashyirwaga mu rwego rumwe n’ indwara z’ umuhangayiko ariko nazo zishyirwa mu cyiciro cyazo. Indwara ziri muri iki cyiciro arimo:


Acute Stress Disorder


Iyi ndwara irangwa no kugira umuhangayiko mu gihe cy’ ukwezi kumwe gukurikira ibihe bihungabanya. Urugero rw’ ibikorwa bihungabanya harimo Ibiza, intambara, impanuka, no kuba umutangabuhamya ku rupfu rw’ umuntu runaka.


Nk’ ingaruka, umuntu agira ibimenyetso birimo kumva atandukanye n’ ukuri, gutakaza ubushobozi bwo kwibuka ibihe by’ ingenzi byaranze icyo gikorwa no kugarukirwa n’ amashusho bigasa nkaho yasubiye mu bihe bya kera. Ibindi bimenyetso birimo ibibazo by’ amarangamutima, kubura umutuzo biturutse ku kwibuka ibihe yanyuzemo no kubura ibyishimo.


Adjustment Disorders


Izi ndwara zishobora kubaho nk’ ingaruka z’ impinduka zo gutandukana n’ uwo mwashakanye, kubura akazi, kurangiza umubano, kwimuka, igihombo cyangwa gutenguhwa.

Ubu bwoko bw’ indwara zo mu mutwe bushobora kugira ingaruka ku bana n’ abakuze kandi zirangwa n’ ibimenyetso birimo umuhangayiko, umujinya, uburakari, kwiheba, kubura icyizere cy’ ubuzima n’ ubwigunge.


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)/Ihungabana


Indwara y’ ihungabana (PTSD) ishobora kugaragara nyuma y’ aho umuntu anyuze mu bikomeye harimo guterwa ubwoba ko azicwa, gukomereka bikabije cyangwa ihohoterwa.


Ibimenyetso by’ indwara y’ihungabana birangwa n’ uko umuntu asa nk’ uwasubiye mu bihe byamuhungabanyije, kwirinda ibintu cyangwa abantu bafite aho bihuriye n’ ibyabaye, kumva atabohotse no kugira ibitekerezo bibi.


Inzozi mbi, kugarukirwa, kugira umujinya, kugorwa no kuguma ku murimo umwe, kwikanga bya hato na hato no kwibagirwa ibyabaye ni bimwe mu bimenyetso biboneka ku bantu bafite indwara y’ ihungabana.


Reactive Attachment Disorder


Iyi ndwara yo mu mutwe ishobora kugaragara iyo abana batagifitaanye umubano mwiza n’ ababyeyi cyangwa ababareze mu myaka ya mbere y’ ubuzima bwabo. Ibimenyetso by’ iyi ndwara harimo ko abana bumva bitandukanyije ku babitaho no gusabana n’ abandi byose bituruka ku kuba bataritaweho ku buryo buhagije.


Dissociative Disorders


Izi ni indwara zo mu mutwe zirangwa no gutakaza ubwenge, no kwibagirwa. Izi ndwara zikubiyemo izi zikurikira:


Dissociative Amnesia


Iyi ndwara irangwa no gutakaza ubushobozi bwo kwibuka akenshi bigaterwa no kwitandukanya n’ ubumuntu bwa nyirubwite. Akenshi, gutakaza ubushobozi bwo kwibuka bishobora kumara hagati y’ igihe gito n’ imyaka myinshi, byaratewe n’ ihungabana ry’ ibitekerezo n’ imyitwarire.


Uko kwibagirwa birenze ibisanzwe. Abantu bafite iyi ndwara bashobora kwibuka ibintu bike ugereranyije n’ ibyabaye byose.


Dissociative Identity Disorder


Iyi ndwara yo mu mutwe irangwa n’ imiterere ibiri cg myinshi yose igaragara mu umuntu umwe. Buri miterere ifite uburyo bwayo bwihariye nukuntu, uwo muntu abana n’ abandi. Abantu bafite iyi ndwara bagira ingorane mu myitwarire, kwibuka, uko batekereza, uko berekana amarangamutima yabo n’ uburyo bafata ibintu.


Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder


Iyi ni indwara yo mu mutwe irangwa no kumva umuntu atari mu mubiri we kandi akumva ari kure y’ ukuri guhari. Abantu bafite iyi ndwara bumva akenshi nta kintu kiriho kandi bakumva batandukanye n’ ibitekerezo byabo.


Somatic Symptom Disorders (indwara zirangwa n’ ibimenyetso byo ku mubiri)


Iki ni icyiciro cy’ indwara zo mu mutwe zigaragazwa n’ ibimenyetso by’ indwara z’ umubiri ariko bitabonerwa impamvu n’ abaganga basanzwe.


Ugererenanyije n’ uko zafatwaga mu bihe byashize aho zaburirwaga uburyo zisobanurwa mu muvuzi busanzwe, izi ndwara zireberwa mu buryo bw’ imitekerereze idasanzwe, ibyiyumviro n’ imyitwarire igendana n’ ibimenyetso byazo. Indwara ziri muri iki cyiciro, harimo:


Somatic Symptom Disorder


Iyi ndwara igendana no gutekereza cyane ku bimenyetso by’ indwara z’ umubiri. Umuntu iyo ahora atekereza kuri ibyo bimenyetso bivamo kubangamirwa mu marangamutima bituma umuntu uyifite adakora neza mu buzima bwa buri munsi.


Ni iby’ ingenzi kumenya ko ibimenyetso by’ indwara z’ umubiri biterekana ko abantu babyikoresha iyo bavuga ko bafite ububabare, umunaniro cyangwa ibindi bimenyetso. Muri icyo gihe, igituma umuntu atamererwa neza si uburemere bw’ ibyo bimenyetso, ahubwo ni imyitwarire n’ intekerezo abifiteho.


Illness Anxiety Disorder


Iyi ndwara irangwa n’uko umuntu ahora atekereza ko ashobora kurwara indwara z’ umubiri. Abantu bafite iyi ndwara ntibatuza iyo babonye ko umubiri wabo ufite ibimenyetso bishobora kuvamo indwara ikomeye kandi ntibabyizera iyo bakorewe isuzuma rya muganga rikerekana ko nta ndwara ihari.


Uko guhora batekereza ku ndwara bitera umuhangayiko n’ umujagararo. Bituma kandi abantu bagira imyitwarire idakwiye nko guhora bipimisha cyangwa bivuza kandi bakirinda ibintu byose bishobora gushyira ubuzima bwabo mu kaga.


Conversion Disorder


Conversion disorder igaragazwa n’ ibimenyetso bituma umuntu atagenda cyangwa atiyumvira neza ariko bikaburirwa igisobanuro hakoresejwe uburyo bwo kwa muganga. Akenshi, umuntu agira ibimenyetso by’ iyi ndwara iyo yakomeretse cyangwa akanyura mu bihe bimuhungabanya, bikavamo ibibazo by’ imitekerereze n’ amarangamutima.


Factitious Disorder


Factitious disorder yari ifite igice cyayo bwite yashyirwagamo, ariko ubu iri mu ndwara zo mu mutwe zirangwa n’ ibitekerezo byinshi ku bimenyetso by’ indwara z’ umubiri. Iyi ndwara igaragara iyo umuntu ahimba cyangwa agakuririza ibimenyetso by’ indwara ku bushake. Urugero rukomeye rw’ iyi ndwara ni Munchausen syndrome, indwara irangwa no guhimba ibimenyetso umuntu agambiriye kwitabwaho n’ abandi.


Feeding and Eating Disorders


Izi ni indwara zo mu mutwe zirangwa n’ imyitwarire itaboneye mu mifungurire. Zirangwa n’ ibitekerezo byerekeye ibiro n’ imitwarire igira ingaruka ku buzima bw’ umubiri no mu mutwe. Izo ndwara harimo:


Anorexia Nervosa


Iyi ndwara iranwa no kurya bike bishbora gutuma umuntu atakaza ibiro. Abantu bamwe bafite Anorexia baba bafite ibiro bike cyane, ibiringaniye cyangwa biri hejuru ugererenij

e n’uburebure cyangwa imyaka yabo.


Bulimia Nervosa


Bulimia nervosa ikubiyemo kurya cyane hanyuma ugafata ingamba zikabije kugirango ugabanye ibyo winije mu mubiri. Iyo myitwarire yo kubigarura ikarangwa no kuruka (Ku bushake), kunywa imiti ituma umuntu yituma cyangwa gukora imyitozo ngororamubiri myinshi.


Rumination Disorder


Iyi ni ndwara irangwa no kugarura ibiryo byakanjwe cyangwa byamizwe hagamijwe kubicira cyangwa kongera kubimira. Iyi ndwara ya Rumination disorder ishobora kugaragara mu bana bato, ingimbi n’ abangavu cyangwa abakuze. Igaragara kandi mu bantu bafite umuhangayiko, agahinda gakabije cyangwa indi ndwara yo mu mutwe.


Ibindi bibazo bishobora guturuka kuri iyi myitwarire ni ukwangirika kw’ amenyo, ibisebe mu rwungano ngogozi no kubura intungamubiri zihagije.


Pica


Pica ni ndwara yo mu mutwe irangwa no kurarikira cyangwa kurya ibintu bitaribwa nk’ ivumbi, Irangi cyangwa isabune. Pica igaragara cyane mu bana bato kurusha abakuze, ariko kandi izwi ko igaragara mu gihe umubyeyi atwite. Kubura intungamubiri zihagije nabyo bishobora gutuma rimwe na rimwe umuntu ararikira ibintu bitaribwa.


Binge Eating Disorder


Iyi ni indwara yo mu mutwe irangwa no gutamira ingano y’ibiryo byinshi mu gihe gito. Abantu bafite iyi ndwara akenshi bumva badafite ubushobozi bwo kubihagarika. Rimwe na rimwe, iyo myitwarire ikururwa n’ amarangamutima harimo kumva bishimye, bahangayitse cyangwa barambiwe cyangwa kunyura mu bihe bihungabanya.


Sleep-Wake Disorders


Izi ni indwara zigaragaraho imisinzirire idakwiye ishobora gutuma umuntu ajagarara kandi ntakore neza imirimo ya buri munsi. Ingero z’ indwara zo gusinzira harimo:


Narcolepsy


Narcolepsy ni indwara irangwa n’ uko umuntu ahora yumva ashaka gusinzira kandi bikaba ikibazo kubihagarika. Abantu bayifite bashobora kumva akenshi nta mbaraga bafite.


Insomnia Disorder


Iyi ndwara irangwa no kunanirwa gusinzira ngo umuntu yumve aruhutse ku buryo bumuhagije. Mu gihe abantu bose bagira ibibazo mu misinzirire, rimwe na rimwe bagakanguka, kubura ibitotsi bifatwa nk’ indwara iyo biherekejwe no kubura amahwemo kandi ntukore neza imirimo ya buri munsi.


Hypersomnolence


Iyi ni indwara irangwa no gusinzira cyane birenze igihe gisanzwe. Abantu bafite iki kibazo basinzira kenshi ku manywa cyane cyane mu gihe bakora ibikorwa byabo nk’ akazi cyangwa amasomo.


Breathing-Related Sleep Disorders


Izi ni indwara zijyanye n’ imihumekere iba mu gihe umuntu asinziriye. Harimo kubura umwuka no guhumeka nabi iyo umuntu aryamye. Ibi bibazo by’ imihumekere bishobora kuvamo umuhangayiko kandi bikaba byatera ibindi bibazo harimo kubura ibitosti cyangwa gusinzira cyane.


Parasomnias


Izi ni ndwara zo mu mutwe zirangwa n’ imyitwarire idasanzwe mu gihe umuntu asinziriye. harimo kugenda umuntu asinziriye, guterwa mu nzozi, kurota uvuga no kurya umuntu asinziriye.


Restless Legs Syndrome


Iyi ni indwara yo mu mutwe irangwa no kubangamirwa mu maguru bikajyana no kunyeganyeza amaguru cyane kugira ngo umuntu yumve atuje. Abatu bafite iyi ndwara barangwa no kubyinisha, gukuba, kuribwa no kubangamirwa mu maguru bigatuma adasinzira bikwiye.


Disruptive, Impulse Control and Conduct Disorders


Izi ni indwara zo mu mutwe zirangwa no kubura ubushobozi bwo kwifata mu marangamutima n’ imyitwarire, bishobora gutuma umuntu yigirira nabi cyangwa akagirira abanda nabi.

Izo ngorane zo kwifata mu marangamutima n’ imiyitwarire birangwa n’ ibikorwa bibangamira uburenganzira bw’ abanda harimo kwaniza ibintu byabo no kurwana n’ ibindi bikorwa bituma atandukira amahame abantu bose bahuriyeho, kwigomeka ku buyobozi n’ amategeko. Izo ndwara harimo:


Kleptomania


Iyi ndwara iranwa no kubura ubusobozi bwo guhagarika kwiba. Abantu bafite iyi ndwara biba ibintu mu byukuri badakeneye cyangwa bidafite agaciro gahambaye. Abantu bafite iki kibazo bumva bashaka kwiba, bagatwara ibyo bintu kugira ngo bahaze amarangamutima yabo.


Pyromania


Pyromania ni indwara yo mu mutwe irangwa no kwishimira ahantu harangwa umuriro bishobora gutuma umuntu uyifite atwika ibintu bye cyangwa iby’ abandi. Abantu bafite pyromania batangiza umuriro ku bushake inshuro zirenze imwe. Bumva kandi banyotewe no gutwika ibintu mbere yo kubikora.


Intermittent Explosive Disorder


Iyi ni indwara yo mu mutwe irangwa no kugira umujinya biherekezwa no guhohotera abandi. Abantu bafite iyi ndwara bashobora gutura umujinya cyanwa gukora ibikorwa bitera abandi ubwoba niyo baba bahuye n’ utubazo duto mu buzima bwa buri munsi.


Conduct Disorder


Iyi ni indwara yo mu mutwe iboneka mu bana, ingimbi n’ abangavu bafite munsi y’ imyaka 18 y’ ubukure bakunda kwica amategeko, amahame no kubangamira uburenganzira bw’ abandi.


Abana bafite ubu burwayi barangwa n’ amahane akomeye bagirira abantu cyangwa inyamaswa z’abandi, kwangiza imitungo y’ abandi, kwiba no kuyobya abandi no kwica amategeko y’ ubuyobozi.

Iyi myitwarire ivamo ibibazo bibangamira amasomo cyangwa imirimo ya buri munsi ikorwa n’ umwana.


Oppositional Defiant Disorder


Iyi ni indwara yo mu mutwe itangira mbere y’ imyaka 18 y’ ubukure ikarangwa n’ agasuzuguro, umushiha, umujinya, amahane no kutagira impuhwe.

Mu gihe abana benshi rimwe na rimwe barangwa n’ agasuzuguro, abana bafite iyi ndwara bo banga kumvira abantu bakuru kandi buri gihe bakanakora ibikorwa bibangamira abandi.


Depressive Disorders (Indwara z’ agahinda)


Iki cyiciro kirimo cy’ indwara z’ agahinda. Zose zirangwa n’ umubabaro, kumva ntacyo umuntu yakora n’ uburakari akenshi biherekezwa n’ ibimenyetso byo ku mubiri n’ imitekerereze. Zitandukanira ku gihe ibimenyetso bimara n’ impamvu ibitera. Izi ndwara zirimo:

  • Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: ni indwara y’ amarangamutima igaragara mu bana ikarangwa n’ umujinya cyangwa uburakari bikabije.

  • Indwara y’ agahinda gakabije: ni indwara irangwa no kubura ubushake bwo gukora ibintu n’ umubabaro bigatuma umuntu adakora neza mu buzima bwa buri munsi.

  • Persistent depressive disorder: ubu bwoko burangwa n’ agahinda kamara igihe kirenze imyaka ibiri, gaherekejwe n’ ibindi bimeyetso byo ku rwego rwo hejuru by’ agahinda gakabije.

  • Other specified depressive disorder: iyi ndwara igaragara iyo hakozwe isuzuma ariko ibimenyetso ntibyuzuze ibisabwa ngo byitirirwe indwara y’ agahinda, ariko nubundi bikabangamira umuntu ntakore neza mu buzima bwa buri munsi.

  • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: iyi ni indwara irangwa no kugira umubabaro ukomeye, umujinya n’ ubwoba mu cyumweru kimwe cyangwa bibiri mbere y’ uko umugore cyangwa umukobwa ajya mu gihe cy’ imihango. Ibimenyetso by’ agahinda bivaho iyo igihe cy’ imihango kirangiye.

  • Substance/medication-induced depressive disorder: iyi ndwara igaragara iyo umuntu agaragaje ibimenyetso by’ indwara y’ agahinda mu gihe cyangwa nyuma yo gukoresha inzoga cyangwa ibiyobyabwenge.

  • Depressive disorder due to another medical condition: iyi ndwara yemezwa iyo bibnetse ko umuntuu afite ibimenytso by’ agahinda byaturutse ku burwayi yigeze kugira. Indwara zishobora guteza ibimenyetso by’ agahinda harimo diyabete, guturika kw’ imitsi yo mu bwonko, Parkinson, uburibwe bumara igihe kirekire, kanseri, n’ agakoko gatera SIDA.

Indwara z’ agahinda zose zirangwa no kumva umuntu ababaye kandi afite intege nke bihoraho kandi bikangiza imikorere ye.


Ibimenyetso byizo ndwara zose zihuriraho ni ibi: kumva nta mbaraga, kubura ibyishimo, kudashishikazwa n’ ibikorwa byazanaga umunezero mbere, gusinzira nabi no gutakaza ubushobozi bwo kuguma ku gikorwa runaka.


Ibishingirwaho hemezwa buri ndwara biratandukanye. Isuzuma ryo kwemeza indwara y’ agahinda gakabije bisaba ko umuntu aba afite ibimenyetso birenze bitanu, kandi bikaba byaragaragaye mu gihe cy' ibyumweru bibiri byashize.


Bimwe muri ibyo bimenyetso harimo umubabaro no kudashishikazwa no gukora ibintu byazanaga umunezero mbere. Ibindi bimenyetso harimo:

  • Gutakaza cyangwa kwiyongera kw’ ibiro

  • Kugira ubushake bwo kurya byinshi cyangwa bike

  • Ibibazo mu misinzirire (Kubura ibitotsi cyangwa gusinzira cyane)

  • Kubura imbaraga zo gukora cyangwa kudatuza.

  • Kubura imbaraga n’ umunaniro akenshi bimara umunsi wose.

  • Kwishinja no kumva ntacyo ushoboye

  • Gukomererwa no gutekereza cyangwa kuguma ku gikorwa kimwe

  • Ibitekerezo by’ urupfu cyangwa kwiyahura.

Kuvura indwara z’ agahinda akenshi bikorwa hakoreshejwe imiti cyangwa uburyo bw’ ibiganiro.


Substance Use and Addictive Disorders (Indwara zishamikiye ku ikoreshwa ry’ ibiyobyabwenge n’ ububata)


Izi ni indwara zo mu mutwe zirangwa no gukoresha nabi ibinyabutabire harimo inzoga n’ ibindi biyobyabwenge. Izi ndwara zishobora kuzamo igice cy’ ibibazo biterwa no gukoresha imiti myinshi, cyangwa ibindi bibazo byo mu mutwe harimo psychosis, umuhangayiko no gucanganyikirwa. Ingero z’ indwara zifitanye isano n’ ikoreshwa ry’ ibiyobyabwenge harimo:

  • Indwara zifitanye isano no gukoresha inzoga: zirangwa no kunywa inzoga nyinshi kandi bigira ingaruka ku bikorwa bya buri munsi.

  • Cannabis-related disorders: izi ndwara zigira ibimenyetso byo gukoresha urumogi, kubura uburyo bwo kubihagarika nubwo nyirubwite yaba azi ingaruka zabyo.

  • Inhalant-use disorders: ni indwara zirangwa no guhumeka umwuka w’ ibinyabutabire nk’ Irangi, lisansi, peteroli, kore cyangwa indi miti. Nk’ uko izindi ndwara zo gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge zimeze, abantu bafite iki kibazo bahora bararikiye ibyo bintu kandi birabakomerera kubihagarika.

  • Indwara yo gukoresha itabi: irangwa n’ ibimenyetso birimo gukoresha itabi ku rugero runini, kugorwa no kurivaho, kurirarikira no guhura n’ ibibazo by’imibanire bitewe n’ itabi.

Gambling Disorder (Gutega ku mukino no gukina urusimbi)


Igitabo cy’ indwara zo mu mutwe DSM-5 kirimo indwara yo gukina urusimbi muri iki cyiciro kubera ko gutega ku mikino no gukina urusimbi bigira ububata kandi bikagira ingaruka zimeze nk’ izi ikoreshwa ry’ ibiyobyabwenge ku rugero rumwe cyangwa urundi.


Neurocognitive Disorders


Indwara ziri muri iki cyiciro zirangwa no kubura ubushobozi bwo gutekereza mu buryo bubereye. Iki cyiciro ntago kirimo indwara zabonetse mu gihe umwana avuka cyangwa zatangiye mu myaka ya mbere y’ ubuzima. Ubwoko bw’ izi ndwara harimo:


Delirium


Delirium izwi ku izina ryo gucanganyikirwa. Ibimenyetso by’ iyi ndwara bimara amasaha cyangwa iminsi mike kandi irangwa no kubura ubushobozi bwo kumenya ibiri kuba.


Other Neurocognitive Disorders


Ni izindi ndwara zirangwa no kugabanuka kw’ ubushobozi bwo gutekereza burangwa n’ amazinda no kunanirwa kwibuka, kuvuga, kwiga cyangwa gusobanukirwa ibintu neza.

Izi ndwara zishobora guterwa n’ ibibazo by’ umubiri harimo Alzheimer's disease, Agakoko gatera SIDA, Parkinson's disease, ikoreshwa ry’ ibiyobyabwenge, indwara z’ imitsi n’ ibindi.


Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders


Schizophrenia ni indwara yo mu mutwe imara igihe kirekire ikangiza imitekerere, ibyiyumviro n’ imyitwarire by’ umuntu. Ni ikibazo gikomeye. DSM -5(igitabo cy’ indwara zo mu mutwe) yerekana ko ibigenderwaho hemezwa iyi ndwara ari ibimenyetso byibuze bibiri bigomba kuba bimaze igihe cy’ ukwezi.

Ikimenyetso kimwe muri ibyo kigomba kuba ari kimwe muri ibi bikurikira:

  • Delusions: Kwizera ibintu bihabanye n’ ukuri.

  • Kwiyumvira ibintu bidahari: kubona cyangwa kumva ibintu bitabonwa cyangwa ngo byumvwe n’ abandi.

  • Kuvuga amagambo aterekeranye: amagambo ntakurikiza uburyo busanzwe bw’ ururimi kandi bishobora kugorana gusobanukirwa n’ abandi.

Iki