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Ubuvuzi bw’indwara zo mu mutwe ku abana (Pediatric Psychiatry)

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Ubuvuzi bw’indwara zo mu mutwe ku abana (Pediatric Psychiatry)

Iki ni igice cy’ubuvuzi cyibanda ku gusuzuma, kuvura no kurinda abana n’ imiryano yabo indwara zo mu mutwe. Ingimbi n’abangavu bafite ibyago byinshi byo kwadukirwa n’indwara zo mu mutwe kubera imibereho yabo, ipfunwe, ivangura cyangwa kwegezwayo, no kubura aho baka ubufasha bukwiye.


Ababarizwa muri iki cyiciro harimo ababa ahantu bahabwa ubufasha, abafite indwara z’igihe kirekire n’izidakira, Autism Spectrum Disorder (indwara ituma abana bagorwa no kugira ubumenyi), ubumuga bwo mu mutwe, abatwite, abana babyaye bakiri bato cyangwa bashyingiwe ku gahato, impfubyi, abahura n’ivangura rishingiye ku gitsina n’umuco n’ abanda bahejwe.


Ibyiciro by’ indwara zo mu mutwe ku bana

Indwara z’amarangamutima
Bigereranywa ko 3.6% by’abantu bafite hagati y’imyaka 10 na 14, 4.6% bafite hagati y’imyaka 15 na 19 bafite ibimenyetso by’indwara y’icyoba (anxiety disorder). 1.1% by’abafite hagati y’imyaka 10 na 14 na 2.8% by’ abafite hagati y’imyaka 15 na 19 bagaragaza ibimenyetso by’indwara y’ agahinda gakabije (Depression). Izi ndwara zombi zishobora gutuma abana batitabira ishuri, bakadindira mu masomo. Kwiheza, bishobora kongera ubukana bwo kwigunga n’irungu. Agahinda gakabije gashobora kuvamo kwiyahura.

Indwara z’imyitwarire
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ni indwara y’abana irangwa n’ingorane mu gutuza, gukubagana cyane no gukora ikintu umwan atitaye ku ngaruka. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) igaragara ku rugero rwa 3.1% mu bana bafite hagati y’imyaka 10 na 14, na 2.4% mubafite hagati y’imyaka 15 na 19. Conduct disorder (indwara irangwa n’imyitwarire itaboneye no kwangiza) igaragara ku rugero rwa 3.6% mu bana bafite hagati y’imyaka 10 na 14, na 2.4% mubafite hagati y’imyaka 15 na 19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ishobora kugira ingaruka ku myigire y'umwana naho Conduct disorder (indwara irangwa n’imyitwarire itaboneye no kwangiza) yashora umwana mu byaha bihanwa n’amategeko.

Eating Disorders (Indwara z’imyitwarire mu mirire)
Zimwe mu ndwara imyitwarire mu mirire nka Anorexia Nervosa na Bulimia Nervosa akenshi zigaraga mu myaka y’ubugimbi n’ubwangavu. Izi ndwara zigaragazwa n’imyitwarire idahwitse mu gufungura, umuntu agahora atekereza ibiryo akenshi bikajyana no gutekereza ku biro n’ imiterere y’umubiri. Anorexia Nervosa ishobora kuvamo urupfu akenshi bitewe n’ibibazo umubiri ugira cyangwa kwiyahura kandi bigaragazwa n’imibare ko imfu nyinsi ziterwa nayo ugereranyije n’izindi ndwara zo mu mutwe.

Indwara yo mu mutwe “Psychosis”
Indwara zigaragaza ibimenyetso bya “Psychosis” akenshi nabyo bitangira kugaragara mu myaka y’abakiri bato. Ibimenyetso byayo harimo kumva ibintu bidahari cyangwa imyumvire (cyangwa imyizerere) y’ibintu bitari byo. Ibi kandi bituma abayifite babura ubushobozi bwo gukora mu buzima bwa buri munsi, amasomo agahagarara kandi ikabatera ipfunwe cyangwa uburenganzira bwabo ntibwubahirizwe.

Kwiyahura no kwiyangiza
Kwiyahura ni impamvu ya kane ituma ingimbi n’abangavu benshi bafite hagati y’imyaka 15 na 19. Bimwe muri byinshi byongera ibyago byo kwiyahura harimo gukoresha nabi inzoga, guhohoterwa mu bwana, ipfunwe ryo gusaba ubufasha, imbogamizi mu kubona ubufasha, kuba hafi y’ibishobora gukoreshwa n’umwana mu kwiyahura. Imbuga nkoranyambaga zigira uruhare yaba mu guteza imbere inkuru zo kwiyahura cyangwa koroshya ingamba zo kubyirinda.

Ubuvuzi butangwa iyo bibonetse hakiri kare

Ni iby’ingenzi kumenya ibyo ingimbi n’abangavu bakeneye cyane cyane ku byerekey ubuzima bwo mu mutwe. Kwirinda gutuza abana mu bigo no mu bitaro, gushyira imbere ubuvuzi budakoresha imiti no kubahiriza uburenganzira bw’abana ni ingenzi ku buzima bwo mu mutwe ku ngimbi n’abangavu.